Zika Virus Linked with Another Brain Disease
Some people infected with the Zika virus may develop a rare neurological disorder that is similar to multiple sclerosis
Some people infected with the Zika virus may develop a rare neurological disorder that is similar to multiple sclerosis, a new study from Brazil suggests.
The study reports two cases of people who were infected with the Zika virus and who later developed a condition called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). In people with this condition, the body's own immune system causes swelling in the brain and spinal cord, and damages the protective coating of nerve fibers called myelin.
The condition is similar to multiple sclerosis (MS), which also causes damage to myelin. But whereas people with MS often have multiple attacks, people with ADEM usually have just a single attack of symptoms and recover after about six months.
The study adds to a growing list of conditions already linked with the Zika virus, including another neurological disorder called Guillain-Barré syndrome, as well as microcephaly, a birth defect in which an infant's head is abnormally small and is thought to occur when the virus is passed from a woman to her infant during pregnancy.
Still, the new study found only an association between the Zika virus and ADEM, and thus cannot prove that Zika virus infection causes ADEM. It's also important to note that neither Guillain-Barré syndrome nor ADEM is common in people with Zika virus infections, the researchers said. [Zika Virus FAQs: Top Questions Answered]
"This doesn't mean that all people infected with Zika will experience these brain problems," Dr. Maria Lucia Brito Ferreira, a co-author of the new study and a physician at Restoration Hospital in Recife, Brazil, said in a statement. "However, our study may shed light on possible lingering effects the virus may be associated with in the brain."
The study included 151 people who visited a hospital in Recife between December 2014 and June 2015, and who had symptoms of Zika virus or another similar virus. Of these, six people developed symptoms of autoimmune disorders, in which the patient's own immune system mistakenly attacks the body. It turned out that four of these patients had Guillain-Barré syndrome, and two had ADEM, the researchers found. (All six of these patients tested positive for Zika virus.)
For some of these people, neurological symptoms started as soon as the Zika virus symptoms appeared, but for others, the neurological symptoms took up to 15 days to appear.
The study will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology meeting in Vancouver, which runs from April 15 to 21.
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Rarely has anyone looked at a potentially fatal infectious disease and exclaimed, "Now, that is a thing of beauty." One sculptor, however, has taken bacteria and viruses from their invisible world and placed them in ours.
Artist Luke Jerram has created a collection of glass artwork in the shape microorganisms -- bacteria and viruses no less that have the potential to infect or even kill human beings. By bringing these microscopic marauders to the light, Jerram demystifies these otherwise unknowable microorganisms. And using glass as a medium reinforces not only the fragility of the work, but also our own in the face of these diseases.
In this slide show, take a closer look at some of the highlights from Jerram's glass microbiology collection.
Turning HIV into a work of art is a seemingly impossible task. The virus is responsible for the deaths of an estimated 34 million people worldwide since the epidemic was first reported in 1981, according to UNAIDS, the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.
The HIV virus sculpture was the first Jerram built for his collection.
If there's one disease that has plagued humankind throughout its history, it's malaria. In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated that more than 200 million people were infected with the disease, mostly in poverty-stricken regions of sub-Saharan Africa, but also parts of South America and Southeast Asia.
Malaria is transmitted through mosquito bites. Mosquito nets, insect repellant and pesticides are all effective means of prevention, but only for those with the available resources and access to afford them.
Looking at this spindly sculpture might make you the slightest bit queasy, and for good reason. E. coli is represented by this glass artwork. Although most E. coli strains are in fact harmless to humans, the strains we're most acquainted with are the ones that cause food poisoning.
This alien-looking sculpture is actually T4 Bacteriophage, a virus that targets E. coli bacteria.
Bacteriophages are small viruses that attach to the cell membrane of bacteria. The virus injects its DNA into the bacteria, which then produces replicas of the virus, filling the bacterium until it bursts.
If this model is giving you that nostalgic feeling of plagues past, you might not be surprised to find out that this work represents Severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS.
SARS made global headlines in 2003 when people in 37 countries and nearly reached pandemic levels. Although coverage of the illness was widely criticized for overstating the threat, nearly 9,000 were infected with the disease, with had a nearly 10 percent fatality rate.
Swine flu, shown here, was another contagious disease that drew global attention that Jerram selected for his exhibition, but this time it was personal. According to his website, Jerram came down with swine flu and constructed the sculpture "with a fever whilst swallowing my Tamiflu tablets every few hours."
Swine flu, or H1N1 strain of the influenza virus, made global headlines in 2009 as the next potential major flu epidemic. Though common among pigs, swine flu is rarely transmitted among humans. When it does infect a human, however, the symptoms associated with the virus, typical of other flu strains, are particularly acute.
Given just how common the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is among humans, you'd think this virus, pictured here, wouldn't be so controversial. In fact, it isn't, but the use of a vaccine to prevent the infection, which can lead to certain kinds of cancers in women.
Because the virus can be transmitted sexually, however, the idea of vaccinations, particularly compulsory ones for children -- the vaccine is in fact intended only for people 25 and younger -- generated a considerable pushback, despite the obvious benefits of the treatment.
Hand, foot and mouth disease might not get a lot of press, but these disease outbreaks are in fact fairly common, particularly among infants and children. Occasionally, they can be fatal. Symptoms are similar to the flu, with the exception of sores that can appear all over the body, but particularly the hands, feet and mouth of the carrier.
This final entry is an unrealized future mutation for a disease that doesn't exist yet. Look for it in a contaminated water main, food source or loving pet near you. (But seriously, don't.)