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Why It's So Hard For The Government To Hack Your Phone

The FBI is currently in a battle with Apple to allow encrypted phones be unlocked, but how does encryption even work?

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ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD (AES) (Federal Information
Processing Standards Publication)
"The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specifies a FIPS-approved cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information."
"This standard may be used by Federal departments and agencies when an agency determines that sensitive (unclassified) information"

Analysis of Avalanche Effect in Plaintext of DES using Binary Codes (International Journal of Emerging Trends and Technology in Computer Science)
"Cryptography provides a method for securing and authenticating the transmission of information across insecure communication channels.""Symmetric keys encryption or secret key encryption identical key is used by sender and receiver."
"Data can be recovered from cipher only by using exactly the same key used to encipher it."

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) (TechTarget)
"The Advanced Encryption Standard became effective as a federal government standard in 2002"
"ES is one of the Suite B cryptographic algorithms used by NSA's Information Assurance Directorate in technology approved for protecting national security systems."

iOS Security (Apple)
"On mobile devices, speed and power efficiency are critical. Cryptographic operations are complex and can introduce performance or battery life problems if not designed and implemented with these priorities in mind."
"Every iOS device has a dedicated AES 256 crypto engine built into the DMA path between the flash storage and main system memory, making file encryption highly efficient"