Guy Fawkes was an Englishman who became famous because of his part in the plot to murder the King of England in 1605. He's also the inspiration behind the "Anonymous" mask.
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Fawkes was part of a group that gathered barrels of gunpowder in an attempt to blow up Parliament, and along with it, King James the First. However, the night before they were to carry out this act Guy Fawkes was found before he could light the fuse, captured and taken to the Tower of London where he was tortured and eventually confessed.
He, along with many of his co-conspirators, were sentenced to be brutally mutilated, then hung, drawn and quartered. But before any of that could happen, Fawkes jumped to his death, breaking his neck, in one last act of rebellion against the English monarchy.
Read more about Guy Fawkes and Anonymous:
Slate: Recognizably Anonymous
The Guardian: The irony of the Anonymous mask