When governments don't support rangers, local communities often close in. Forty-three percent of rangers surveyed say they have been threatened by community members. Human-wildlife conflict and dangers posed by tigers and elephants, and sometimes rhinos, often result in negative attitudes toward wild animals, and in turn, toward the rangers charged with protecting them.
Nepal's rangers experience the opposite: locals in Nepal help rangers succeed. The country's 400 community-based anti-poaching units patrol and monitor illegal activity, giving citizens an opportunity to contribute to conservation efforts. As a result, at a time when the illegal killing of large animals is at record levels elsewhere around the world, Nepal has experienced three years of zero rhino poaching since 2011 and is heading for a fourth.
The greater one-horned rhino, found in Nepal, India and a small pocket of Bhutan, numbered only 100 individuals at the turn of the 20th century. Today, due to collaborative and concerted efforts, it numbers 3,500 across these three countries. It's the only large mammal in Asia to be down-listed from endangered to vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.