What Can We Learn By Drilling Into The Earth's Mantle?

Scientists have just discovered something deep in the earth's crust that could tell us a lot about outer space. What exactly did they find?

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Orcutt's Expedition Finds Signs of Life in Earth's Mantle (Bigelow)
"An international team of scientists - recently returned from a 47-day research expedition to the middle of the Atlantic Ocean - have collected an unprecedented sequence of rock samples from the shallow mantle of the ocean crust that bear signs of life, unique carbon cycling, and ocean crust movement."

A Decades-Long Quest to Drill into the Earth's Mantle May Soon Hit Pay Dirt (Smithsonian Magazine)
"Since the 1960s, researchers have attempted to drill into Earth's mantle but have not yet met with success. Nevertheless, those efforts have shown that the technology and expertise to drill to the mantle exists. And now the first phase of the most recent attempt to reach this important part of our planet is boring through a thin section of ocean crust in the southwestern Indian Ocean."

What's at the Bottom of the Deepest Hole on Earth? (IFL Science)
"Soviet scientists in the 1970s decided to probe deeper than humanity has ever done before. For the next 24 years, they drilled on and off into the Earth's crust. The result was the Kola Superdeep Borehole and a drill-depth of more than 7.5 miles (12 kilometers)."