The Nobel Prize committee gives awards to those who provide - “the Greatest Benefit to Mankind” and a handful of dedicated scientists make the cut every year. This year’s winners tinkered with evolution in the lab, developed therapeutics that fight cancer and created lasers so powerful that they can peek inside an atom. They’re investigating science at the micron level, and their groundbreaking discoveries are completely changing the way we look at our own world.
There are three major science categories for the Nobel Prizes; medicine, chemistry, and physics. And the Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded for breakthroughs in immunotherapy. James Allison and Tasuku Honjo developed research that led to the rise of new immunotherapy drugs. See, our immune system has specialized cells, called t-cells, that attack any foreign invaders, like viruses or bacteria. Think of them like your system's bodyguard, they're looking out for any enemies in your midst. But that’s the thing with cancer, your own cells are the enemy, so the t-cells don’t know to fight them off.