President Donald Trump declared the end of a "war on coal" Tuesday, as he moved to curb rules that underpin American emissions targets and a major global climate accord.
Following through on an election promise, Trump signed an order to review some of his predecessor Barack Obama's climate legacy, declaring an end to "job-killing regulations."
In a maiden trip to the Environmental Protection Agency, he ordered a review of emission limits for coal-fired power plants and eased up restrictions on federal leasing for coal production.
Trump said the measures herald "a new era in American energy and production and job creation."
Critics say that rolling back Obama's Clean Power Plan is unlikely to result in a boost to production or to create substantial numbers of jobs.
America's coal industry has long been in decline, with natural gas, cheap renewable energy, automation, and tricky geology making the sooty fuel a less lucrative prospect.
In 2008 there were 88,000 coal miners in the United States, according to the US Energy Information Administration.