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In America, the Bill of Rights is as about as sacred as any text can be. The First Amendment, among many other things, protects the right to peaceful protest. It's simply stated in the official document but there are finer details of this right that might be unfamiliar to some people.
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The restrictions to the right to assemble have to be applied in a way that is content-neutral. In other words, the rules must be the same for everyone, regardless of what they are protesting. Common reasons a protest might be shut down include excessive noise, destruction of property, and blockage of traffic. Protests that get in the way of ordinary usage of areas - like disturbing patients in a hospital, blocking kids from going to school, or long disruptions in traffic - can all get shut down. The First Amendment does not protect assembly on private property and demonstrations on the Supreme Court Plaza are also banned.
Many people make cases in favor of protests that disrupt, feeling that completely docile ones have less effect on the status quo. The law allows for some inconvenience due to demonstrations but there is room for interpretation. Although the rules are meant to be applied equally to all protests, ignoring subject matter, it's hard to be certain that your protest will be considered legal and that is something to understand before you get involved.
Read more about the rules of protesting in America:
ProPublica: Just How Much Can the State Restrict a Peaceful Protest?
ACLU: Know Your Rights: Demonstrations and Protests