Gliese 832 is a well-known red dwarf. With a mass around half that of our sun, this diminutive star, located only 16 light-years away, has two exoplanets called Gliese 832b and Gliese 832c. Gliese 832b is the larger of the two and has the widest orbit, located 3.53 AU from its host star. It is also more massive, "weighing in" at around 60 percent the mass of Jupiter. Gliese 832c on the other hand is classified as a "super-Earth" of around five times more massive than Earth. It's orbit is extremely compact, coming within 0.16 AU of its star. As a comparison, in our solar system, the innermost planet Mercury comes no closer than 0.3 AU to the sun.
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Gliese 832c hit the headlines in 2014, lauded as a possible "Earth 2.0." Though this is certainly a possibility, according to planetary scientists, it is more likely to be a hostile "Venus 2.0″ with a thick, life-choking atmosphere.
Both 832b and 832c were detected by astronomers watching the star's light frequency slightly oscillate, an effect known as Doppler Shift. Much in the same way we hear a higher-pitch siren as a police car approaches compared to when the police car drives away, as a planet's gravity pulls a star toward us, its wavelength will become more compressed (increasing in frequency). As the planet orbits away, the star will also be pulled away, increasing the light's wavelength (decreasing the frequency). Through computer analysis of these oscillations, astronomers can "see" the orbits of planets around stars without actually seeing the planets themselves. Within these radial velocity measurements the companion planets' masses, orbital periods and orbital distances can be deduced by using established Keplerian laws of planetary motion.