Pakistan mobilized its troops and all military hospitals have been put on high alert, army spokesman Lieutenant General Asim Bajwa said, adding that specialized earthquake rescue machinery and army helicopters were being readied for use.
The Pakistan Air Force said it was offering full support to the National Disaster Management Authority.
Arbab Muhammad Asim, district mayor for Pakistan's northwestern city of Peshawar, said more than 100 people had been injured there alone.
"Many houses and buildings have collapsed in the city," he said.
Dr Muhammad Sadiq, the head of emergency services at a government hospital in Peshawar said the injured were still being brought in.
"Many are still under rubble," Sadiq told AFP.
Afghanistan's CEO Abdullah Abdullah said reports of damage and injuries were coming in from the northeast.
"Disaster authorities to meet within the hour and respond to the needs," he tweeted.
Traffic came to a stop in downtown Kabul, with frightened people getting out of their cars as they waited for the quake to stop.
As buildings shook throughout north India, hundreds poured onto the streets from office blocks, hospitals and and homes.
Delhi's metro ground to a halt during the tremor although the airport continued operating.
Cellphone networks were down in the Kashmir region, where panicked residents also evacuated buildings and children were seen huddling together outside their school in the main city of Srinagar.
"Some bridges and buildings got damaged. There are no reports of loss of life so far. Cellphone networks are down, we are using our wireless network to gather information," police inspector general in Kashmir, Javid Gillani, told AFP.
Many buildings were badly damaged during massive floods in Kashmir a year ago, heightening the danger of collapse during the quake.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi took to Twitter immediately after the quake.
"Heard about strong earthquake in Afghanistan-Pakistan region whose tremors have been felt in parts of India. I pray for everyone's safety," he wrote.
"I have asked for an urgent assessment and we stand ready for assistance where required, including Afghanistan & Pakistan."
Afghanistan is frequently hit by earthquakes, especially in the Hindu Kush mountain range, which lies near the junction of the Eurasian and Indian tectonic plates.
South Asia's quakes occur along a major fault line between the two tectonic plates -- one under India pushing north and east at a rate of about two centimeters (0.8 inches) per year against the other, which carries Europe and Asia.
In Nepal twin quakes in May killed more than 8,900 people, triggered landslides and destroyed half a million homes.