Pollen Turns Bumble Bees into Jumbo Jets
Bumble bees trade fighter-jet-like maneuverability for jumbo-jet-like stability when they shift their load from nectar to pollen.
Flying bumblebees trade off fighter-jet-like maneuverability for jumbo-jet-like stability when they shift their load from nectar to pollen, researchers have found.
The findings, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, are among the first to show how nectar and pollen affects the flight dynamics of bumblebees.
"The literature shows bumblebees can carry just about over half their body mass in pollen or close to their body mass in nectar," says Dr Sridhar Ravi of aerospace engineering at RMIT University.
While nectar is carried in an insect's abdomen, pollen is carried on its legs. Ravi and colleagues figured that these different load positions would affect how the insect flew.
They hypothesised that when an insect was carrying pollen instead of nectar it would have added stability because, like a tightrope walker, it had balancing weights at a distance from its body.
But these weights would also slow down the insect's turning process and make it harder for it to maneuver quickly to escape a predator or to land on a moving flower.
By contrast, when an insect was carrying nectar, the researchers thought it would have added maneuverability because its weight was focused near its center of gravity.
Ravi and colleagues carried out a set of experiments in a wind tunnel with a robotic flower, which looked at the flight performance of 14 bees under different conditions.
They put markers on the bees and then using high speed video measured their speed, acceleration and orientation over time.
If a bee had to land on a stationary flower in turbulent wind conditions, it flew with greater stability and efficiency when it was loaded with pollen than when it was loaded with nectar.
When a bee had to track a moving robotic flower in steady wind conditions, by contrast, a nectar load enabled the bee to maneuver more deftly.
In a final experiment where the bee had to track a moving flower in turbulent wind conditions, there was no advantage to carrying pollen or nectar, says Ravi.
"Such a test has never been done," he says. "It shows there's a trade off between stability and maneuverability."
"So if something is stable it's not going to be maneuverable and if something is maneuverable it's probably not going to be stable.
Ravi likens the difference that pollen and nectar loads make to a bee to the difference between a jumbo passenger aircraft that is very stable but unable to perform rapid, quick maneuvers, and a fighter jet that performs rapid maneuvers, but is not stable.
While honey bees have dedicated foragers for pollen or for nectar, bumblebees are generalists and will carry either pollen or nectar depending on what the hive requires.
The latest findings provide insight into the cost different loads impose on flying bumblebees, says Ravi.
It also suggests that on windy or rainy days they might prefer to collect pollen, an idea that he and colleagues are now looking into.
The U.S. Geological Survey is posting photos of insects on its
, offering a macro look at this hidden world. First up, this Festive Tiger Beetle (
) was found on top of a butte in Badlands National Park that had ancient windblown sand at its crest. Here, this sand specialist can build its long burrows.
This Agapostemon bee species is one of the most common native bees in the eastern United States. In almost any field there can be hundreds, if not thousands, of these bees visiting a wide variety of blooming plants. One of the largest of the sweat bees, it still goes undetected if you don't get down on your knees, face close, among the flowers. This one was collected at Colorado National Monument, Mesa County, Colo.
This wild bee (
), a female from Grand Tetons National Park, was collected as part of a study of climate change. Most species in this genus are black , but a few, like this one, are as the Latin in name implies, glittering jewels.
This unknown wasp was collected in Cecil County, Md.
This is an unknown species of Robber Fly from Charles County, Md. Robber flies, a very large and widespread type of fly, feed on many different kinds of insects, making them a key player in maintaining the insect balance in different environments.
One species of the rarely seen leafcutting bee, this is
from the sandhills of North Carolina. Leafcutter bees are so called because they cut plant leaves to create the cells in their nests. The bees tend to build their homes in rotted wood or in the strong stems of plants.
is a type of jumping spider. This one was found in Beltsville, Md., but
lives in fields and prairies across North America. It feeds on seasonal plants.
Eggplant Tortoise Beetles like eggplants (go figure), eating holes in the plants' leaves. From the underside, the insects look quite queenly, with their ruffled collars. This one was gathered at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, in Anne Arundel County, Md.
The Karner blue butterfly,
Lycaeides melissa samuelis
, is endangered. Karner blue butterflies feed on nectar from many different types of flowers, but their larvae can survive on the leaves of only one specific plant, which has been decimated by habitat loss or change.
Deer flies like this one, despite their groovy eyes, deliver a ferocious bite. And no wonder: when the female bites (males don't bite), she lacerates the skin and when the blood flows, sponges it up with her mouth. There are over 110 species of deer fly.
Centris bees, like this one, make their homes in holes, either in trees or in the ground.
The biggest visual difference between damselflies and dragonflies are their wing positions when resting. Dragonflies hold their wings open, while damselflies close them above their backs. This Ebony Jewelwing Damselfly (
) was found on a Beltsville, Md. stream.