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Pluto Flyby Begins: NASA Probe Enters Encounter Phase

NASA's New Horizons probe has officially begun to execute its sequence of Pluto flyby observations as it zooms toward its closest approach to the dwarf planet on July 14.

NASA's New Horizons probe has officially begun to execute its sequence of Pluto flyby observations as it zooms toward its closest approach to the dwarf planet on July 14.

Mission representatives say New Horizons is "back on track" after it experienced an anomaly on July 4 that caused it to go into a temporary "safe mode." The anomaly was later shown to be the result of too many commands being executed at once.

The spacecraft is already collecting data about the Pluto system, and its nine-day flyby sequence will continue through July 16. It's taken more than nine years for the $700 million New Horizons mission to traverse the 3 billion miles (4.8 billion kilometers) between Earth and Pluto, but the peak of the spacecraft's journey will last a matter of hours. [Photos of Pluto and Its Moons]

Our Dwarf Planet Dreams are Coming into Focus: Photos

As the probe nears Pluto, NASA TV will air daily updates from mission control at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, at 11:30 a.m. ET (1530 GMT), through July 14.

In an update Wednesday (July 8), Alice Bowman, mission operations manager for New Horizons, said the July 4 anomaly gave the mission team a bit of a scare.

"We were all a little bit afraid of what might happen, but we put on our engineering hats and we went down our checklist and we did what needed to be done to recover that spacecraft to operational mode," Bowman said.

New Horizons returned to nominal science operations on Tuesday (July 7). Mission team members reported that about 30 observations were lost during those three days. Those data represent "less than 1 percent of the total science that the New Horizons team hoped to collect between July 4 and July 16," NASA said in a statement.

"We're delighted with the New Horizons response to the anomaly," Jim Green, NASA's director of planetary science, said in the statement. "Now we're eager to get back to the science and prepare for the payoff that's yet to come."

TIMELINE: From the Start, Pluto was a Puzzle

Bowman said the spacecraft is currently taking science data as well as optical navigation data, which is "very important because it is a measure of how well we are doing on that trajectory to hit that specific point at the specific time that the science team wants us to hit. So that's pretty much what we're focused on now, is to get those science observations at the right time and at the perfect lighting conditions.

"We're amazingly close," Bowman said. "It's hard to believe that we're here right now."

Original article on Space.com.

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The term "dwarf planet" wasn't defined until the infamous International Astronomical Union (IAU) vote in 2006, but this year, 9 years later, we are beginning to get our first ever close-up views of two of our solar system's most famous dwarf planets: Pluto and Ceres.

VIDEO: Pluto Flyby and Black Holes: Top Space Events for 2015

Currently spiraling in on Ceres, the innermost dwarf planet inhabiting the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, NASA's Dawn spacecraft is slowly revealing a cratered and complex world, details of which that have so far eluded even Hubble's powerful vision. Dawn is scheduled to make final orbital insertion around Ceres in March 2015 where it is destined to remain after its fuel runs out as a permanent human-made satellite of Ceres. A comparison image of the Hubble and Dawn views of Ceres is shown above.

ANALYSIS: NASA Spacecraft Ready to Unlock Ceres' Mysteries

But Dawn is just the first dwarf planet encounter of 2015. In July, NASA's New Horizons mission will flyby Pluto and its system of moons, exploring the mysterious Kuiper Belt. Between Hubble's blurry observations of Ceres and Pluto and this year's NASA encounters, many artists' impressions of these enigmatic worlds have guessed at what lies in store for our robotic explorers. But how do they measure up now we are beginning to see Ceres' and Pluto's surfaces?

This artist's impression of Ceres shows NASA's Dawn spacecraft in orbit around the dwarf planet. As opposed to an ice encrusted world, this visualization shows a cratered, moon-like surface.

NEWS: Tantalizing Detail Seen on Mysterious Dwarf Planet

Again with Dawn in view, this artist's impression shows an active Ceres complete with water vapor escaping from a possible sub-surface ocean. Water vapor was detected in the vicinity of Ceres by Hubble, so Dawn will be on the look-out for any trace of geysers venting water.

ANALYSIS: Water Plume 'Unequivocally' Detected at Dwarf Planet Ceres

As seen by Hubble from afar, curious white patches and possible variations in Ceres' surface composition can be seen. However, any detail in these images have so far prevented planetary scientists from fully understanding the dwarf planet's true nature.

NEWS: What is That Mysterious White Blob on Ceres?

But now, as Dawn fast approaches orbital insertion, we're being treated to a bounty of data that shows a possibly ancient, rocky surface. Those curious white patches originally spied by Hubble are also snapping into view -- but what are they? Theories abound, but they may be tentative signs of subsurface water escaping to space and freezing on the surface. These are all signs of cryovolcanism, a dynamic that may dominate dwarf planet surface morphology.

NEWS: Dwarf Planet's Puzzling Landscape Snaps into View

From afar, NASA's Dawn mission is able to watch Ceres rotate, as this series of observations on Feb. 4 shows.

ANALYSIS: Craters Pop as NASA’s Dawn Probe Approaches Ceres

As Dawn gets up-close and personal with Ceres, the drama in the outer solar system is only just beginning to unfold. After 9 years of flying toward Pluto, NASA's New Horizons mission has begun approach preparations for its flyby in July.

VIDEO: Pluto Getting Bigger in New Horizons Probe's Window

From ground-based and Hubble observations, there at tantalizing clues that this frozen world has a surprisingly dynamic surface with a thin atmosphere that changes during Pluto's 248 year orbit around the sun. In this artist's impression of New Horizons flying over Pluto, an atmosphere has been included with cryovolcanos -- the latter of which planetary scientists hope to confirm in July.

Pluto has a system of known moons, the largest of which, Charon, may be considered to be Pluto's binary partner. As Charon orbits Pluto, its powerful gravitational field tugs the dwarf planet off center, a dynamic that New Horizons has observed as it approaches.

ANALYSIS: NASA Probe Captures First Pluto Approach Photos

This artist's conception shows Pluto's moon Charon eclipsing the dwarf planet. Twice every orbit around the sun, each world eclipses the other.

NEWS: Tally-Ho on Targets for New Horizons After Pluto

When Hubble spies on Pluto, it can see the different shades of the dwarf planet's surface rotate. As shown here in these blotchy images, little detail is obvious, but large regions with differing albedo (reflectiveness) may reveal huge craters, vast plains or mountains. But until New Horizons gets close, these regions will remain a mystery.

In this digital illustration rendered from 3-D NASA data of Pluto, an attempt has been made at matching observations with possible surface features.

In July 2014, NASA's New Horizons looked ahead and spied its ultimate goal: Pluto and Charon. Although tiny pinpricks of light, the pair can be seen orbiting one another in a binary dance that shifts Pluto off center. Both masses actually orbit an invisible point in space, above Pluto's surface, known as the Pluto-Charon barycenter. These observations have increased calls for Pluto to be redefined (yet again) as a 'binary planet.'

MORE: Can We Call Pluto and Charon a 'Binary Planet' Yet?

Having spotted Charon months ago, New Horizons is now beginning to see Pluto's wider family of moons pop into view. Shown here are moons Nix (yellow diamond) and Hydra (orange diamond).

MORE: Pluto's Tiny Moons Spied by Incoming NASA Probe

Once NASA's New Horizons mission careens through the Pluto-Charon system, assuming it doesn't hit any debris on its way through, its mission in the Kuiper Belt has only just begun. Hubble is currently being used to identify possible icy targets

after

the spacecraft's Pluto encounter. Shown here is an artist's impression of another dwarf planet, Eris, that was discovered in 2005. Originally thought to be the

tenth

planet of the solar system, its discovery led to the IAU's decision to reclassify these small worlds as dwarf planets, demoting Pluto in the process, leaving us with 8 planets. But as we approach Pluto and begin to understand Ceres, just because they are dwarf planets doesn't mean they're not rich and dynamic places to explore. Our voyage of dwarf planet discovery has only just begun and regardless of our need to classify celestial objects, Pluto and Ceres hold some fascinating clues to planetary formation and solar system evolution.

For more, regularly check on the

NASA Dawn

and

NASA New Horizons

mission web sites.