The Topol missile is a new addition to Russia's military, the first intercontinental ballistic missile to be developed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Intercontinental ballistic missiles, or ICBMs, are used as nuclear weapon delivery systems, capable of being launched into space and delivering their payloads thousands of miles away. The 52 ton (at launch) missile has an operational range of 11,000 kilometers (6,800 miles).
According to the Information Telegraph Agency of Russia news agency, a spokesperson from Russia's Defense Ministry said the test was needed to "confirm the stability of the basic performance characteristics of this class of missiles during the extension of the life, practice of measuring systems for various types of measuring, testing warheads of intercontinental ballistic missiles." (From translated text.)
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What's more, it has been reported that the missile test was a success - a "conditional target" at the Sary-Shagan anti-ballistic missile testing range in Kazakhstan was struck.