They also evaluated industrial fishing data from the Food and Agriculture Organization from the last 60 years.
The environmental data showed an uneven distribution of changes to the Earth's oceans between 1979 and 2014, with the most striking shifts at the poles and the tropics.
Due to global warming, scientists found significant changes to water temperatures, current circulation and nutrient availability.
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As the global average temperature has increased, the majority of extra heat has been absorbed by the oceans, leading to changes in the ocean's density, or stratification, the study said.
Increased stratification prevents water and nutrients mixing, which can hamper primary production that forms the basis of the food chain.
Water from melting ice sheets and glaciers, meanwhile, can influence the behavior of ocean currents, changing the marine ecosystem.
To get an idea about how these environmental changes could impact marine life, the researchers identified six marine biodiversity hotspots, all concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere.