History

Jerusalem's First Homes Unearthed

The two 7,000-year-old homes featured stone floors and held pottery, flint tools, a stone bowl and even a gemstone.

Israeli archaeologists have found the earliest known houses in Jerusalem, showing that a thriving settlement existed there as far back as 7,000 years ago, far longer than had been thought.

The discovery was made during the building of a new road in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of Shuafat, the Israel Antiquities Authority said in a statement on Wednesday.

The archaeologists unearthed two houses, complete with stone floors and well-preserved artifacts such as pottery vessels, flint tools, a stone bowl and even a carnelian gemstone.

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Stages of construction and signs of maintenance show the buildings were used for a considerable length of time.

The houses were built in the Chalcolithic period, approximately in the 5th millennium BC. At that time, man started developing the use of copper (chalcos in Greek) while using tools made of stone (lithos).

The remains predate previously found evidence of human settlement in the area by up to 2,000 years.

"The buildings uncovered are of a standard that would not fall short of Jerusalem's architecture," Ronit Lupo, director of excavations for the Israel Antiquities Authority, said.

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"This discovery represents a highly significant addition to our research of the city and the vicinity," he added.

He noted the artifacts unearthed at the site reveal the livelihood of the local population in prehistoric times: small sickle blades were likely employed for harvesting crops, while chisels and axes were used for building.

"The bead made out of carnelian indicates that jewelry was either made or imported. The grinding tools, mortars and pestles, like the basalt bowl, attest to technological skills as well as to the kinds of crafts practiced in the local community," Lupo said.

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The researchers also plan to analyze sheep and goat bones found at the site in order to better understand the dietary habits of the people who lived there 7,000 years ago.

Ronit Lupo near the remains of the ancient houses.

Egypt will likely offer promising finds in 2016. King Tutankhamun's tomb will be under the spotlight as

recent investigation

suggests the western and northern walls of the 3,300-year-old burial may hide two secret chambers. According to Egypt's Minister of Antiquity Mamdouh al-Damaty there is a 90 percent chance the tomb of King Tut contains such chambers. Damaty made the announcement last November at the end of a radar-based investigation. The non-invasive search followed a claim by Nicholas Reeves, a British Egyptologist at the University of Arizona, who first speculated the existence of the chambers, arguing that one contains the remains, and possibly the intact grave goods, from queen Nefertiti. She was the wife of the "heretic" monotheistic pharaoh Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's father. Will archaeologists try to access the hidden chambers? Their attempt may lead to what Damaty called "one of the most important finds of the century."

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The noninvasive technologies applied to King Tut's tomb will be widely used this year in another ambitious project. Called Scan Pyramid, the investigation is carried out by a team from Cairo University's Faculty of Engineering and the Paris-based organization Heritage, Innovation and Preservation under the authority of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities. The project aims to scan the largest pyramids of Egypt in order to detect the presence of any unknown internal structures and cavities. The technique could lead to a better understanding of the pyramids' structure and how they were built. The project uses a mix of technologies such as infrared thermography, muon radiography, and 3D reconstruction to look at the inside of four pyramids, which are more than 4,500 years old. They include Khufu, or Cheops, Khafre or Chephren at Giza, the Bent pyramid and the Red pyramid at Dahshur. One

particularly remarkable anomaly

has been already detected on the eastern side of the Great Pyramid, also known as Khufu or Cheops, at the ground level. Much more is to come -- the first results are expected in the first months of the year.

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Last year a study made an

extraordinary and controversial claim

: Stonehenge was basically a second-hand monument from Wales. It would have stood there hundreds of years before it was dismantled and transported to Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. The research indicates that two quarries in the Preseli Hills of Pembrokeshire, in southwest Wales, are the source of Stonehenge's bluestones. Carbon dating revealed such stones were dug out at least 500 years before Stonehenge was built -- suggesting they were first used in a local monument that was later dismantled and dragged off to England. "Stonehenge was a Welsh monument from its very beginning. If we can find the original monument in Wales from which it was built, we will finally be able to solve the mystery," Mike Parker Pearson, director of the project and professor of British later prehistory at University College London said. Researchers have been using geophysical surveys, trial excavations and aerial photographic analysis to identify the ruins of a lost, dismantled monument. The results of such research promise to make the headlines this year. "We think we have the most likely spot. We may find something big in 2016," Kate Welham, of Bournemouth University, said.

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In early December,

the Colombian government announced

they had found the holy grail of treasure shipwrecks -- an 18th-century Spanish galleon that went down off the country's coast with a treasure of gold, coins and precious stones now valued between $4 billion and $17 billion. The multibillion-dollar ship, called the San Jose, was found off the island of Baru, near Cartagena. The vessel was part of Spain's only royal convoy to bring colonial coins and bullion home to King Philip V during the War of Spanish Succession from 1701 to 1714. The San Jose was trying to outrun a fleet of British warships off the island of Baru on June 8, 1708, when an explosion sent it to the bottom of the Caribbean Sea. She was reportedly carrying 600 people, chests of emeralds and tons of silver, gold and platinum. The shipwreck has been at a center of a decades-long search that also involved a legal battle with the Seattle-based Sea Search Armada, or SSA, a commercial salvage company that claims it first discovered the wreck's location in 1981. Moreover, Peru has argued that any treasure recovered from the San Jose should be considered a Peruvian national patrimony. As more legal fights will likely occur, new expeditions to the wreck in 2016 are expected to recover the much disputed treasure of gold and emeralds.

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One of the most promising discoveries last year was

an oval-shaped structure

unearthed in the Tuscan town of Volterra. Archaeologists believe it represents the most important Roman amphitheater finding over the last century. The foundations of the colosseum, which is oval-shaped like the much larger arena in the heart of Rome, might date back to the 1st century A.D. Amphitheaters like these were used during Roman times to feature events including gladiator combats and wild animal fights. The archaeologists estimate the structure, which mostly lies at a depth of 20 to 32 feet, measured some 262 by 196 feet. Only a small part of it has been unearthed during a small dig survey. New finds are expected this year as a full-scale dig is launched.

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