Under the 47 billion yen ($470 million) scheme announced Tuesday, scientists will freeze the soil around the stricken reactors to form an impenetrable wall they hope will direct groundwater away from the plant.
This will entail burying pipes vertically and passing refrigerant through them. Officials estimate the whole project will take two years and cost around 32 billion yen.
A further 15 billion yen will be spent on equipment to remove radiation from water currently being stored.
On Monday, the head of Japan's nuclear watchdog said it was "unavoidable" that water would have to be released into the ocean at some point, although he stressed it would have to be largely decontaminated first.
TEPCO's clean-up at Fukushima has come in for increasing criticism from politicians, academics and Japan's usually quiescent public.
Abe on Monday described TEPCO's approach to the crisis as "haphazard" and vowed to take over the initiative in containing the leak from the troubled firm.
Last week, a government minister compared its approach to plugging leaks with "whack-a-mole", the anarchic fairground game in which players must hit furry creatures with a mallet as they pop up at random.