The first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first person to win two Nobel Prizes, Madame Marie Curie was also, sadly, the victim of her own invention -- or perhaps experimentation.
Curie is credited with the discovery of radium and polonium -- two highly radioactive elements. Although radon, the gas emitted by radium, was used by Curie and others as a medical treatment for injured soldiers during WWI, the elements would eventually be recognized for their deadly side effects, according the Institut Curie.
After spending a lifetime up to her elbows, literally, in radioactive material, Curie's health slowly deteriorated. She died on July 4, 1934 at the age of 66. At the time, Curie's cause of death was listed as aplastic anemia, a condition where bone marrow stops producing new blood cells. Today we know that her condition was caused by radiation exposure.