India's Mars Orbiter Mission Arrives at the Red Planet
India has joined the Mars club.
India has joined the Mars club.
India's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) probe was captured by the Red Planet's gravity around 10:11 p.m. EDT Tuesday (Sept. 23; 0211 GMT and 7:41 a.m. Indian Standard Time on Wednesday, Sept. 24), making India's space agency just the fourth entity - after the United States, the European Space Agency and the former Soviet Union - to successfully place a spacecraft in Mars orbit.
The MOM probe, which is named Mangalyaan (Sanskrit for "Mars Craft"), executed a 24-minute orbital insertion burn Tuesday night, ending a 10-month space journey that began with the spacecraft's launch on Nov. 5, 2013. [India's First Mars Mission in Pictures (Gallery)]
"What is red, is a planet and is the focus of my orbit?" officials with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said via Twitter Tuesday night, in a playful announcement of the orbital-insertion success.
MOM's historic arrival at Mars comes just two days after NASA's MAVEN spacecraft reached the Red Planet, which now hosts five operational orbiters as well as two working surface craft - NASA's Opportunity and Curiosity rovers.
The $74 million MOM mission is mainly a technology demonstration, designed to show that India can indeed get a spacecraft to Mars. But the probe also totes a camera and four scientific instruments, which the craft will use to study the planet's surface and atmosphere.
For example, MOM will search for methane, a key target for researchers hunting for signs of life on Mars. Living things produce more than 90 percent of the methane in Earth's atmosphere. And the gas is thought to disappear relatively quickly from Mars' air, meaning that any methane spotted there would have been produced recently.
MOM's mission design calls for a highly elliptical, 77-hour orbit that will bring Mangalyaan as close as 227 miles (365 kilometers) to Mars and take the probe as far away as 49,710 miles (80,000 km) from the planet. MOM's science mission should last between six and 10 months, ISRO officials have said.
MAVEN, whose name is short for Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, aims to help scientists figure out how and why the Red Planet's climate shifted as dramatically as it did in the past. Billions of years ago, Mars was a warm and wet world capable of supporting microbial life, but today it's a cold and dry place whose surface appears inhospitable.
MAVEN will use its three suites of scientific instruments to study Mars' upper atmosphere, measuring the rates of gas escape into space. Mission team members have said they hope the probe's observations shed light on how the Red Planet lost most of its atmosphere, which was once relatively thick but is now just 1 percent as dense as that of Earth at sea level.
The other three operational spacecraft currently circling the Red Planet are NASA's Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, along with Europe's Mars Express probe.
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India's First Mars Probe - Orbit Insertion Animation The Boldest Mars Missions in History India's Mars Orbiter Mission: Latest News, Photos and Video Originally published on Space.com. Copyright 2014 SPACE.com, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
Artist's concept of India's Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft, which arrived at the Red Planet on Sept. 24, 2014 Indian Standard Time (Sept. 23 EDT).
The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera is the most powerful imager in orbit around Mars. Capable of resolving objects less than a meter wide on the surface of the Red Planet while attached to NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), HiRISE has brought us unparallelled views of Martian landscape, geology, active erosion processes and even our own surface missions.
After nearly 8 years of orbiting Mars, HiRISE has amassed a huge archive of observations and, in many cases, observations can be combined to provide a unique insight to the planet's topography -- an observation that can be difficult to make with a single top-down snapshot.
Therefore, the HiRISE team use "stereo pairs" of observations from different orbital passes (and therefore different viewing angles) of the same locations on the Martian surface. This can produce topographical maps of surface features accurate to within 10s of centimeters in height. These high resolution digital terrain models, or DTMs, provide an incredible scientific insight as well as constructing an aesthetically pleasing perspective of an otherwise "flat" vista. In all images a color spectrum of purple-white is used, where the purple/blue hues are the lowest lying land and the red/white hues are the highest. Here are some of our favorite DTM images.
Shown here are the stunning "moving dunes" of Nili Patera (catalog number: ESP_017762_1890)
Elevation range: 55 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to 275 meters (red/white - highest) above mean Mars surface elevation.
DTMs can be very useful when trying to understand the morphology of craters on the Martian surface. This is Raga Crater, featuring very steep crater slopes in its interior (ESP_014011_1315).
Elevation range: 1,311 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to 1,966 meters (red/white - highest) above mean Mars surface elevation.
This is one of the stereo pairs of images used to compose the DTM of Raga Crater (see previous slide). Although this HiRISE image provides incredible high-resolution imagery of the feature, there is little elevation data, something the DTM provides through its topographical color spectrum (ESP_014011_1315).
The rim of Endeavour Crater in Meridiani Planum. Since 2011, Mars rover Opportunity has been extensively studying the crater's rim, turning up exciting evidence of past water on the Martian surface. The HiRISE DTMs have played a key role in mapping the rover's drive in the region (ESP_018701_1775)
Elevation range: -1,695 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to -1,380 meters (red/white - highest) below mean Mars surface elevation.
The barchan dunes on Mars can be monstrous structures. This example is nearly 300 meters high and features a steep slip face where there appear to be obvious signs of avalanches having taken place (PSP_006899_1330).
Elevation range: 1,031 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to 1,321 meters (red/white - highest) above mean Mars surface elevation.
This may look like a shooting star cartoon, but it's actually an old impact crater plus ridge of dunes in Athabasca Valles. The "tail" of material is likely caused by prevailing winds shaping the landscape (PSP_002661_1895).
Elevation range: -2,611 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to -2,441 meters (red/white - highest) below mean Mars surface elevation.
Victoria Crater in Meridiani Planum, a crater explored by Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from September 2006 to August 2008 (PSP_001414_1780).
Elevation range: -1,453 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to -1,373 meters (red/white - highest) below mean Mars surface elevation.
Small cones in an ancient volcanic region of mars, formed by molten lava flowing over ice or water (ESP_018747_2065).
Elevation range: -3,262 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to -3,196 meters (red/white - highest) below mean Mars surface elevation.
A deep channel formed by the ancient flow of water in the Tartarus Colles Region. A small island is evident in the meandering channel (ESP_012444_2065).
Elevation range: -3,301 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to -3,189 meters (red/white - highest) below mean Mars surface elevation.
Zooming in on Gasa Crater reveals gullies formed through erosion (ESP_021584_1440)
Elevation range: -704 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to 581 meters (red/white - highest) above mean Mars surface elevation.
The "inverted valleys" near Juventae Chasma were once the floor of valleys. But over time, the topographic low regions, which are composed of material resistant to erosion (likely cemented there by water sedimentation), become ridges as the softer material around them eroded below the ancient valley floors (PSP_007627_1765).
Elevation range: 2,128 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to 2,234 meters (red/white - highest) above mean Mars surface elevation.
A well-preserved 3 kilometer-wide impact crater (ESP_012991_1335).
Elevation range: 1,114 meters (purple/blue - lowest) to 1,742 meters (red/white - highest) above mean Mars surface elevation.
A mound in Ganges Chasma. Using the topographical color reference, this feature is approximately 800 meters high from base to peak. The arcing structure around the mound may be a wind-blown ridge of material surrounding the obstacle (ESP_017173_1715).
Elevation range: -3,716 meters (purple/blue) to -2,711 meters (red/white) below mean Mars surface elevation.
Inside a crater in Western Arabia Terra with stair-stepped hills and dunes.
Elevation range: -2,575 meters (purple/blue) to -2,259 meters (red/white) below mean Mars surface elevation.
A fresh impact crater. Newly formed craters on Mars have smooth ridges and are often circular. Older craters undergo atmospheric erosion processes, often causing the ridges to appear broken, frayed and slumped (PSP_005837_1965).
Elevation range: -4,304 meters (purple/blue) to -3,658 meters (red/white) below mean Mars surface elevation.
Layered surface deposits of material in the north polar region of Mars leave a step-like pattern (ESP_018870_2625).
Elevation range: -3,555 meters (purple/blue) to -3,027 meters (red/white) below mean Mars surface elevation.
A deep fissure scars the Martian surface, a possible source of ancient floodwater (PSP_010361_1955).
Elevation range: -2,747 meters (purple/blue) to -1,577 meters (red/white) below mean Mars surface elevation.
At the base of shield volcano Ascraeus Mons' slopes in the Tharsis Region, ancient river and tributary channels carve up the landscape (PSP_002486_1860).
Elevation range: 6,432 meters (purple/blue) to 6,675 meters (red/white) below mean Mars surface elevation.
A distributary channel -- a river that branches off and flows away from a main channel -- can be seen flowing down the base of Ascraeus Mons (ESP_011373_1865).
Elevation range: 6,568 meters (purple/blue) to 6,766 meters (red/white) below mean Mars surface elevation.