To help solve the coldest of cold cases, Fleckinger asked chief inspector Alexander Horn, at the Criminal Investigation Department in Muinch, Germany, to probe the "Ötzi Murder Case" using behavioral investigative analysis.
Horn began his inquire by examining the crime scene as it appeared on Sept. 19, 1991 when a human corpse was found near a melting glacier in the Ötztal Alps.
The corpse was lying with the chest against a flat rock. Only the back of the head, the bare shoulders and part of the back emerged from the ice and meltwater.
He reconstructed the crime scene with the objects that were found in the vicinity and added to his analysis the data from the forensic medical examinations.
"I actually had more information with Ötzi than in certain modern crime cases," Horn said.
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The results of his investigation were that Ötzi did not feel threatened shortly before his murder.
"He wasn't escaping, but resting. He had placed down his gear and enjoyed a hearty meal," Horn said.
Indeed, previous research established that Otzi had eaten Alpine ibex -- a wild goat --- just 30 minutes to 2 hours before his death.
"When you run away, you do not just sit and stop to eat a big meal," Horn told Discovery News.
He noted however that a few days prior to the murder, the Iceman had incurred an injury to his right hand.
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"The wound was the result of a defensive action during the course of a physical altercation. Since no other injuries could be found, we believe he came out as a winner from that hostile encounter," Horn said.
Such conflict could explain the surprise attack a few days later. Anger might have mounted after the unsuccessful hand-to-hand fight in Ötzi's counterpart and a new attack was planned -- by surprise this time.
According to Horn, the arrow shot appears to have been launched from a great distance in an act of treachery, taking Ötzi by surprise.
All his objects, including the valuable copper axe, remained at the crime scene -- a fact that made Horn rule out theft as the reason of the killing.
"A personal conflict is more likely. We are talking of a behavioral pattern that is also prevalent today in most murder cases. It start with little things and it grows to the extreme," Horn said.
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