Animals

How Scientists Manipulate Research With P-Value

Numbers don't lie, right? Or are scientists intentionally using statistics to mislead us?

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The ASA's statement on p-values: context, process,and purpose (American Statistician)
"Underpinning many published scientific conclusions is the concept of 'statistical significance,' typically assessed with an index called the p-value. While the p-value can be a useful statistical measure, it is commonly misused and misinterpreted."

Evolution of Reporting P Values in the Biomedical Literature, 1990-2015 (Journal of the American Medical Association)
"In this analysis of P values reported in MEDLINE abstracts and in PMC articles from 1990-2015...almost all abstracts and articles with P values reported statistically significant results, and, in a subgroup analysis, few articles included confidence intervals, Bayes factors, or effect sizes. Rather than reporting isolated P values, articles should include effect sizes and uncertainty metrics."