Waves, wind & current http://www.marin.nl/web/Research-Topics/Offshore-operations/Waves-wind-current.htm
"The waves, wind and current conditions are the drivers of the design and engineering of platforms, as they provide important design criteria, which are normally based on historical statistics. Long term monitoring of the environmental conditions have already shown that these criteria often have to be reviewed and updated. "
Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)
"An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, or Acoustic Doppler Profiler, is often referred to with the acronym ADCP. Scientists use the instrument to measure how fast water is moving across an entire water column. An ADCP anchored to the seafloor can measure current speed not just at the bottom, but also at equal intervals all the way up to the surface."
Instruments and what they measure:
"Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) - velocity of currents ALACE, PALACE and SOLO Floats - drifting with currents, profiling the upper ocean ASIMET: Air-Sea Interaction Meteorology - adding heat, water and momentum flux to climate models"