In developing nations like Bangladesh, child labor is a huge problem with around 5 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 currently employed. Poverty is the driving factor that causes families to send children to work in hazardous and low-wage jobs, such as brick-chipping, construction and waste-picking instead of attending school.
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In many nations, labor laws exist to protect children, but they are not often enforced. In developed nations like the US, labor laws are strict to ensure that children stay out of the workforce, however, this wasn't always the case.
Read more about Lewis Hine and child labor:
History Place: Child Labor in America
Library of Congress: National Child Labor Committee Collection