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The United Nations is essentially comprised of 6 sub-divisions. The General Assembly is the largest entity, with representatives from all 193-member states. The General Assembly convenes every year in September in New York City. Certain proposals pertaining to administration, defense, new membership, and budget require two-thirds proposal in order to pass. Most other measures, though, only need a majority to pass, with each member state granted one single vote, regardless of size.
Arguably wielding the most power at the UN, the Security Council is comprised of five permanent members: the U.S., Russia, Britain, France, and China. These countries (the victors of WWII) each hold the power to veto measures. In addition, there are 10 other members of the Security Council, elected every two years. These leaders control the UN's Peacekeeping Force, impose sanctions, and generally try to avoid international warfare.
The UN Economic and Social Council works to improve human rights and standards of living in developing countries. This arm of the UN oversees agencies like the World Health Organization and the High Commission for Refugees to carry out its objectives.
These are the three most important UN divisions. There is also the judicial branch called the International Court of Justice, which precedes over international law cases. However, the Court's rulings are tough to enforce and countries tend to refuse to comply. The Secretariat, headed by the UN Secretary General, oversees all administrative affairs of the UN. Lastly, the Trusteeship Council, originally created to help developing countries become sovereign, independent states, was suspended in 1994.
United Nations (un.org)
"The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat. All were established in 1945 when the UN was founded."
Vote allows raising of Palestinian and Vatican flags at United Nations (cnn.com)
"The U.N. General Assembly adopted a resolution Thursday allowing what it officially recognizes as the "State of Palestine" and the Vatican to raise their flags outside of U.N. Headquarters and U.N. offices."
Calls Grow at U.N. for Security Council to Do Its Job: Keep the Peace (nytimes.com)
"There are calls for the Council to do more to prevent conflict, rather than dispatch peacekeepers to places where there is no peace to keep."