How Do Blood Transfusions Work?

How do we transfer blood from one person to another and when did we start doing this?

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A Short History of Blood Transfusion (National Blood Service)
"Since most of the ancient and medieval references probably refer to the ingestion of blood, rather than to its infusion, it is in fact difficult to determine when the first authentic attempt at transfusion was actually performed."

ABO Blood Types (
"Antibodies to alien antigens in the ABO group are usually present in our plasma prior to the first contact with blood of a different ABO type. This may be partly explained by the fact that these antigens are also produced by certain bacteria and possibly some plants."

Blood Facts and Statistics (The Red Cross)
"Although an estimated 38 percent of the U.S. population is eligible to donate blood at any given time, less than 10% of that eligible population actually do each year."