History

Hemp Walls Saved India's Ancient Ellora Caves

A mixture of cannabis, clay and lime proved to be key in helping preserve the 1,500-year-old World Heritage site.

Buddhist monks who prayed in India's Ellora Caves were surrounded by hemp, as plaster covering the shrines' painted walls and ceilings was made of a mixture of cannabis, clay and lime, a new study has revealed.

The earthen mix turned out to be a blessing, since the cannabis played a key role in preserving the World Heritage site.

According to Manager Rajdeo Singh, an archaeological chemist of the Archaeological Survey of India's science branch (western region), and Milind M. Sardesai, who teaches botany at Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, the mixture prevented the plaster from degrading for over 1,500 years.

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The Ellora caves were built between the 6th and 11th centuries, A.D. in the western state of Maharashtra. They are made up of a group of 34 temples carved out of stone and are dedicated to the three main religions of India - Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.

The structure runs in a north–south direction for about 1.2 miles. At the southern end are 12 Buddhist caves, in the north are six Jain caves and in between lie 17 Brahmanical caves.

"The caves are breathtaking examples of rock-cut architecture that stands testimony to the imagination and artistry of its creators," Singh and Sardesai wrote in the journal Current Science.

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They analyzed the clay plaster of Buddhist cave no. 12, a remarkable three-storied building.

Using a scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and stereomicroscopic studies, the researchers were able to isolate specimens of cannabis from the clay plaster.

The remains of cannabis, popularly known as ganja or bhang in India, suggest that it was used in the clay and lime mixture mainly as an insulating agent and to provide added strength to the plaster.

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"The cannabis fiber appears to have a better quality and durability than other fibers. Moreover, the cannabis' gum and sticky properties might have helped clay and lime to form a firm binder," Sardesai told Discovery News.

Called hempcrete, the concrete-like substance used for plastering provided "a healthy, comfortable and aesthetically pleasing living environment to the Buddhist monks to stay," the researchers said.

"As the hemp plaster has the ability to store heat, is fire-resistant and absorbs about 90 percent of airborne sound, a peaceful living environment for the monks has been created at Ellora Caves," they added.

Studies in Europe have estimated that hempcrete can last 600–800 years. In the Ellora caves the life span doubled despite damaging environmental factors, such as a growing humidity inside the caves during rainy seasons.

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"Ellora has proved that only 10 percent of cannabis mixed with clay or lime in the plaster could last for over 1,500 years," Singh told The Times of India.

In contrast, hemp wasn't used in the neighboring Ajanta, another World Heritage site consisting of about 30 rock-cut Buddhist structures dating back to the 2nd century BC.

There, "rampant insect activity has damaged at least 25 percent of the paintings," Singh said.

According to the researchers, properties of hemp fibers such as the ability to regulate humidity inside the cave, pest resistance, fire-retardant, non-toxicity, high vapor permeability, hygroscopic properties, were known to the inhabitants of Ellora in the 6th century AD.

"Unfortunately in India cannabis has gained a bad name because of its narcotic properties. But the ancient artists knew its good sides," Sardesai said.

A view of the entrances to the Buddhist caves at Ellora is shown.

The Hanging Monastery

If you're looking for a truly off-the-beaten path adventure with a spiritual side, few destinations rival these sacred sites. A combination of architectural marvels and temples built by eccentric orders, the spiritual sanctuaries in this slideshow are truly beyond belief. We begin with the Hanging Monastery on Hengshan Mountain in China. Carved into a cliff nearly 250 feet above the ground, the monastery appears to be floating in the air. The temple contains several shrines as well as silver, gold and clay statues representative of Confucian, Buddhist and Taoist teachings. Known properly as Xuankong Si, the temple was built in 491 and remains standing today, though it was renovated during both the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and again by the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).

Is It a Temple, or a UFO?

Wat Phra Dhammakaya is sacred ground to members of the Dhammakaya Movement, a once controversial Buddhist sect. But to non-devotees, this temple simply looks out of this world. Shaped as what appears to be an unidentified flying object painted in gold, this abbot is a recent arrival having been established in 1970. The temple attracts a large following. Here, ordinary believers gathered in 2010 for what is known the Morality Revival Project: One-hundred thousand ordinary men elected to become monks for 49 days for spiritual cleansing.

A Monastery Devoted to...Sex?

Chimi Llakhang near Punakha, Bhutan is not what would typically come to mind when you think of a religious order. Built in the 15th century, the temple's founder, Drukpa Kinley, was known as a "Divine Madman" and thought of as a saint despite his affinity for alcohol, womanizing, blasphemy, and crude humor. Nonethless, Kinley is revered within this monastery. To honor his legacy, Chimi Llakhang is adorned with colorful paintings and carvings of phalluses throughout the temple grounds along with nearly 100 tall prayer flags. Often, childless women within Bhutan will travel to the monastery and perform a fertility ritual, which involves a monk striking a devotee with a wooden phallus to ward off evil.

The Temple Where Rats Rule

The Karni Mata temple in India has something every wandering soul seeking spiritual fulfillment yearns for: thousands and thousands of rats. Considered the reincarnations of once living humans, the rats are sacred to the temple and its patrons. While the rodents would be treated as pests anywhere else in the world, here they are offered food and shelter. The temple is dedicated to Karni Mata, a 14th-century mystic who was believed to be the incarnation of Durga, the goddess of victory. Although a tourist draw, most visitors to the temple are Hindu pilgrims.

The Party Place the Pope Shut Down

Not every holy order has a vow of silence. In fact, Santa Croce in Venice, Italy, had a reputation as something of a party monastery. The chapter was known for organizing evening events hosted by a nun who had once been a nightclub dancer. Santa Croce was even famous for attracting the likes of celebrities and VIPs like Madonna. Unfortunately, it may be too late to pay a visit to this holy site. Because of its reputation, Pope Benedict XVI ordered its closure earlier this year.

A Temple Suspended in Air

Located in Kalampaka, Greece, the Meteora are series of 24 Eastern Orthodox monasteries atop towers of rock built starting in the 11th century. The rock towers themselves are some 60 million years old, emerging from the cone of a river and further transformed by earthquakes according to the World Heritage Convention. In Greek, Meteora means "suspended in air," and the monasteries are an architectural marvel akin to the Hanging Temple that opened this story.

A Religious Brewery

The Trappists, known formally as the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance, are a Catholic monastic group with a strong faith. They adhere to a vow of silence that they take so seriously they even have their own sign language variation. So for anyone who hasn't heard of the order before, it may come as a surprise that the Trappists are also regarded of the creators of some of the finest beers in the world. Arrive at a Trappist order with a brewery on site, such as Westvleteren Abbey in Belgium, and you can expect to find these brewmasters at work. You can even sample their craft. Just try not to get too out of hand after a few drinks. Remember, you're still on holy ground.

The Tiger Temple

If you are a truly indiscriminate animal lover but you've already seen Karni Mata temple (or rats just aren't your thing), why not visit the Tiger Temple in Kanchanaburi, Thailand? Known locally as Wat Pha Luang Ta Bua, the monastery takes in abandoned and orphaned animals. Founded in 1994, the temple was intended to be animal sanctuary. The temple received its first tiger cub in 1999 and currently has nearly 100 on its premises. The tigers are often brought in as cubs, their mothers killed by local poachers.

Sandstone Erotica

If you're thinking about stopping by the Khajuraho monuments in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, you might considering leaving the kids at home. Built between the 10th and 11th centuries, the temples at Khajuraho are adorned with hundreds of sandstone statues. Rather than depicting conservatively dressed religious figures engaged in silent prayer, the architects behind this site instead chose to carve erotic sculptures depicting scantily clad men and women in sexually explicit positions.

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