Florida Lizards Evolve Stickier Feet in Just 15 Years
Green anole handles arrival of an invasive competitor by making better toes in a mere 20 generations.
If you're a green anole living on an island in Florida and your turf is invaded by a brown anole that puts you and your food supply at risk, what do you do? You adapt -- with mind-boggling evolutionary speed, apparently.
That's according to new research by a team of scientists that documented the green anole on islands in Florida making key changes to itself in as little as 15 years and 20 generations.
On initial contact with the invasive brown lizard, the home-team green lizards quickly began to perch themselves higher in trees. As generations passed, their feet evolved -- they grew bigger toe pads and supplied themselves with stickier scales. These changes meant the lizards were better able to grip smoother branches found higher in the trees.
"We did predict that we'd see a change, but the degree and quickness with which they evolved was surprising," said Yoel Stuart, the study's lead author, in a release.
Stuart, a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Integrative Biology at The University of Texas at Austin, compared the lizards' feat to what would be an equally remarkable change in humans. "If human height were evolving as fast as these lizards' toes, the height of an average American man would increase from about 5 foot 9 inches today to about 6 foot 4 inches within 20 generations - an increase that would make the average U.S. male the height of an NBA shooting guard."
Green, or Carolina anoles are abundant lizards in the southeastern United States, while the brown, or Cuban anoles first made their appearance in south Florida in the 1950s. It's unclear how the brown anoles made it to the U.S., but it's speculated that they got here as stowaways on ships carrying agricultural goods from Cuba.
The researchers suspect competition for food and living space is driving the rapid changes. Said competition can even turn gruesome. Stuart said adults of both brown and green lizards have been known to eat the newborn hatchlings of the other species, making a move to the high trees all the more pressing a need. "Maybe if you have bigger toe pads, you'll do that better than if you don't," he said.
Stuart and his co-authors have published their findings in the latest issue of the journal Science.
Native green anoles (left) have evolved better gripping feet in response to an invasion of brown anoles (right) on islands in Florida.
Hugging trees feels good and can even be healthy for many animals, according to a study in the latest issue of
. There are several perks to being a tree hugger, but a surprising one is that trees help to regulate the hugger's body temperature. That's one reason why koalas are so often seen hugging trees.
In fact, koalas have evolved bodies that are perfectly suited for the task. "Koalas have thinner fur in their bellies, which we suspect is to aid close contact with the tree trunk," senior author Michael Kearney told Discovery News. On hot days, he said that koalas "are aiming to cool the vital organs in their chests as well as their brains by losing heat through their chests and groin areas." Kearney is a zoologist at the University of Melbourne. He conducted the study with project leader Natalie Briscoe and four other researchers.
As part of the study, Briscoe, Kearney and their team examined how tree hugging affected koala body temperature. In this thermal image, purple tones are the coldest, with the lightest (yellow) colors indicating warmth. Orange tones show temperatures in between those two extremes. Trees gain heat from the koala body. As this happens, the koala cools off.
Kearney explained that as a koala hugs, "The blood flowing through the body would continually replenish cooled blood near the parts of the koala in contact with the tree with warm blood from other parts of the body, with the ultimate effect of cooling the whole body down."
Briscoe, Kearney and colleagues shared that other animals, such as leopards, hug trees too. Leopards, other big wild tree cats and even tree-climbing house cats might look like they are just lounging on branches, but they too tend to hug trees, using the tree's cooler internal temps to cool down their bodies.
Many bat species go to a lot of trouble to hug trees, having to hang on with their toenails. Some trees turn out to be better than others for body temperature regulation.
Kearney explained, "Trees with smooth bark seem preferable because they have what's called a 'high thermal conductivity,' which means heat flows faster into or out of the object. Also, larger trees with thicker trunks are cooler."
Group hug, anyone? Many species of bats, and particularly those that consume fruit, frequently hug trees en masse. In addition to regulating body temperature, trees can provide food and shelter. Kearney added, "It helps to stay attached to the tree on a windy day."
Cold-blooded animals, such as small reptiles, are more vulnerable to temperature extremes. By hugging trees, they help to control their body temps. Briscoe and her team are not sure if trees help to warm animals on cold days, but they haven't ruled out that possibility.
This green tree monitor lizard appears to have found a perfect spot on a tree. Another green tree monitor lizard nearby benefits as well. The study found that Acacia trees were amongst the coolest during hot days. Acacias are therefore sought out by koalas and other animals.
Both big and small primates (such as this tiny tarsier) seem to enjoy hugging trees, gaining the body temperature regulation benefits. It's not entirely clear why trees are so good at keeping their cool.
"We don't fully understand the mechanism," Kearney said, "but suspect it has to do, in part, with cool ground water being drawn up by the tree as it transpires, and in part because of the tree's thermal inertia." "Thermal inertia" is the degree of slowness with which the temperature of a body approaches that of its surroundings.
One of the two young chimps shown here is hugging what's left of a tree. Deforestation harms countless species. The new findings suggest that animals, ranging from large primates to small invertebrates, could become overheated during hot days without the cooling effect of trees on their bodies.
Squirrels, as for big cats, use trees as the ultimate lounging pads. Squirrels, such as this one, could be hugging trees to cool their body temperature. The squirrels and other animals might not consciously know this. To them, it likely just feels good.
Being primates, our human ancestors likely spent a lot of their time hugging trees. Most trees are the perfect shape for hugging, given that we and many other animals can wrap two or more limbs around them.