In the world of fruit flies being an attractive female can, quite literally, be a real pain.
A study published in the journal PLoS Biology shows the most attractive female fruit flies are constantly harassed to mate, affecting their fertility.
Biologists from the University of California, Santa Barbara believe the harassment could lead to smaller families and affect fruit fly evolution.
Lead author Tristan Long, now at the Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology at the University of Toronto in Canada, said in many species, including fruit flies, males find large-bodied females "attractive" because they have greater capacity to produce offspring.
Seminal displacement is common in fruit flies, meaning the last male to mate with a female who has had multiple partners is most likely to sire the most offspring. This encourages males to disproportionately harass the females.
Long said the excessive male courtship and mating harms the larger females in a number of ways.
He said male courtship, which is "unrelenting" and includes songs and dances, can interfere with female feeding by forcing females to stop foraging for food to escape attention.