"The leg was already partially amputated by the cannon ball, so the surgeon simply completed the amputation by cleaning the wound and smoothing the stump," Fornaciari said.
According to a report by the poet Pietro Aretino, Giovanni's close friend and eyewitness to the surgery, 10 men were summoned to hold down the warrior during the procedure.
"‘Not even 20,' Giovanni said smiling, ‘could hold me,' and he took a candle in his hand, so that he could make light onto himself," Aretino wrote.
Despite his stoic behaviour during the agonizing procedure, Giovanni died five days later, on Nov. 30, 1526.
"Maestro Abram did all he could, but the gangrene infection was at a too advanced stage," Fornaciari said.
Anthropological investigations also established that the warrior was about 5 feet, 8 inches tall and very sturdy.
"We found many vertebral hernias, a consequence of wearing heavy armors," Fornaciari said.
The researchers also discovered that Maria Salviati, Giovanni's wife, suffered from a serious parodontal disease, an abscess and 10 cavities.
But the cause of her death was probably a tertiary syphilis of the bone as shown from cranial lesions.
"At that time it was a very common disease. Most likely she contracted the disease from her husband," Fornaciari said.
Image: 1. A portrait of Giovanni de Medici. Credit: Getty Images 2. Giovanni de Medici's ehumed body. Credit: Gino Fornaciari