The results showed several aspects affect awareness of space.
De la Torre points out that more than 100 years ago Canadian psychiatrist Richard Bucke described "cosmic consciousness" as "a new evolution step beyond self-consciousness."
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"According to Bucke, by virtue of self-consciousness, man is not only conscious of trees, rocks, bodies of water, and his own limbs and body, but he also becomes conscious of himself as a distinct entity apart from all the rest of the universe.
"Further, by means of self-consciousness, man becomes capable of treating his own mental states as objects of consciousness. The prime characteristic of cosmic consciousness is, as its name implies, a consciousness of the cosmos, that is, of the life and order of the universe," De la Torre writes in a study published in the journal Acta Astronautica.
"A certain level of achievement of cosmic consciousness is needed for successful contact, in our opinion. We do not understand cosmic consciousness as a special mystic-state achievement, but as a conscious perception of reality" beyond the effects of fear, religion, denial, etc., he writes.