3D reconstruction of the cow skull showing internally and externally the hole produced by trepanation. Bar corresponds to 10 cm | Fernando Ramirez Rozzi

Stone Age Cow Underwent Cranial Surgery 5,000 Years Ago

A cow cranium from the Neolithic Era appears to be the first evidence of either a veterinary procedure or a person practicing their human surgical skills on an animal.

Cut-marks in the cow skull (a, b, c) and in human skull (d, e) from the Neolithic Era suggest that the technique used for the trepanation in humans is the same as that employed in the cow skull. Bar corresponds to 1 cm. | Fernando Ramirez Rozzi