The cameras were attached by suction cups to each whale for between 24 and 48 hours before they fell off and were retrieved and reused.
WWF-Australia, which helped fund the cameras, said the work was about enabling habitats to become more resilient and thrive in the future.
"Growing human impacts such as climate change and increasing krill fishing overlapping in their critical feeding areas need to be managed carefully," said Chris Johnson, WWF-Australia ocean science manager.
The Antarctic remains one of the world's last wild frontiers, containing some of the most pristine marine ecosystems left on the planet.
It is seen as a critical laboratory for scientists monitoring the effects of climate change.
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The researchers also deployed longer-term electronic tags on the smaller Antarctic minke whales, with scientist Elanor Bell saying there was little information on their feeding behaviour.
"Minkes are faster and more elusive than humpback whales and often forage in areas with lots of sea ice," she said. "This makes it challenging to find and approach them to deploy tracking equipment.”
"So it was really exciting to be able to attach some tags on this voyage,” she added. “These will transmit the location and dive depth data to satellites every time they surface for up to two months.”
The research, backed by the International Whaling Commission, ultimately aims to estimate the abundance and distribution of whales and their role in the Antarctic ecosystem.
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