Space & Innovation

The End Is Nigh for Rosetta's Comet Mission

The European spacecraft is wrapping up an unprecedented series of studies to learn more about solar system's origins.

<p>Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM<span></span></p>

There is no nice way to kill a space probe, particularly one as scientifically productive and endearing as Rosetta, the first comet orbiter. But its demise will come on Sept. 30, assuming it doesn't crash into the comet sooner.

After more than two years circling the Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta will drop to its icy surface and shut down, ending communications with Earth.

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This time, ground controllers expect Rosetta's landing will stick -- unlike sidekick Philae's bouncing touchdown on Nov. 12, 2014. And unlike Philae, which ran through a two-day series of experiments after landing, Rosetta will not attempt any surface science.

Even though Rosetta will free-fall into the comet at the speed of a sedate walk, it is not designed to withstand the impact. Particularly vulnerable are Rosetta's 105-foot long solar array wings.

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The European Space Agency is ending the mission because 67P is racing toward the outer solar system, making charging of Rosetta's batteries increasingly challenging. The spacecraft also has been subjected to the harsh radiation and extreme temperatures of space since launching in March 2004 and is unlikely to last too much longer.

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Rosetta will take a last look around as it descends to the comet's surface. Scientists have selected a landing spot on the smaller lobe of the duck-shaped comet, a region that contains many large, active pits. Lumpy structures known as "goosebumps," line the pit walls. Scientists suspect they may be remnants of primordial mini-comets that melded together to form 67P during the solar system's early days.

Rosetta will take close-up images of the pits and collect data about the dust, gas and plasma around them, its final contribution to an ongoing quest to learn more about the origins of the solar system and the development of life on Earth, and perhaps elsewhere.

"Rosetta has been a great mission and it will be sad when its telecommunications signal will soon be lost," said University of Washington astronomer Donald Brownlee, who led NASA's Stardust comet sample return mission.

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"I was at Denver when we ran the fuel down to zero for the Stardust mission and the spacecraft slowly began to spin out of control. A hundred people were watching the big screen when the display showed a large 'LOS' for loss of signal. This is the way that spacecraft die," Brownlee told Discovery News.

ESA says confirmation of Rosetta's demise is expected at 7:20 a.m. EDT/11:20 GMT on Sept. 30, with the spacecraft set on a collision course with 67P the evening before.

GALLERY: 7 Intimate Close Encounters With Comets:

On Aug. 6, 2014, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft completed its decade-long journey to reach Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, becoming the first spacecraft to ever orbit a comet. The mission will reach its epic climax when it releases a small robotic lander, called Philae, onto the cometary surface in November. The lander will drill into the surface while Rosetta tags along with the comet's orbit as Churyumov-Gerasimenko makes close approach of the sun. Although Rosetta is unprecedented in that no other mission has achieved orbital insertion around a comet, it's certainly not the first robotic probe to make an intimate cometary encounter. So here's a rundown of 7 encounter of 6 comets by 5 spacecraft since the first close encounter with Halley's Comet in 1986.

Unquestionably the most famous comet in history, Halley's Comet was a prime target for space agencies in 1986 during its 75- to 76-year orbit through the inner solar system. Comet science is still a developing field, but in 1986, very little was known about the composition of these interplanetary vagabonds. In October of that year, the 15-kilometer-long Halley's Comet was visited by the European Space Agency's Giotto mission. The half-ton probe came within 600 kilometers (373 miles) of the comet's nucleus, taking the first photographs of the outgassing vapor from discrete areas of the surface producing its tail and coma (the gas surrounding the nucleus). It was this mission that confirmed the "dirty snowball" theory of cometary composition: a mix of volatile ices and dust. However, Giotto was only able to get so close to the famous comet with the help of the "Halley Armada," a number of international spacecraft all tasked with observing this rare event. Giotto captured the closest imagery, but two Russia/France probes (Vega 1 and 2) and two Japanese craft (Suisei and Sakigake) observed from afar.

At roughly half the size of Halley's comet, Comet Borrelly was found to have similar attributes to its famous cousin. The nucleus was also potato-shaped and blackened. Outgassing vapor was also observed coming from cracks in the nucleus crust where volatiles were exposed to sunlight, sublimating ices into space. NASA's Deep Space 1 probe flew past the comet with a close approach of 3,417 kilometers on Sept. 22, 2001.

Comet Wild 2 -- pronounced "Vilt" after its Swiss discoverer Paul Wild who spotted it in 1978 -- underwent a dramatic alteration in 1974. It is calculated that due to a close pass of Jupiter in 1974, the 5 kilometer-wide comet now orbits the sun every 6 years as opposed to its leisurely 43 years before the gas giant bullied it. The orbital modification meant that Wild 2 was an ideal target for NASA's Stardust mission to lock onto. On Jan. 4, 2004, the Stardust probe gave chase, getting so close to the comet that it was able to collect particles from Wild 2's coma. This image was taken at a distance of less than 240 kilometers (149 miles). The Stardust sample return canister came back to Earth safely, landing in Utah on Jan. 15, 2006. The microscopic particles captured from the comet continue to provide a valuable insight into the organic compounds comets contain. Interestingly, the Stardust spacecraft was granted a mission extension (dubbed New Exploration of Tempel 1 -- NExT). In 2011 it rendezvoused with its second comet, Tempel 1 -- the scene of NASA's 2005 Deep Impact mission -- to analyze the crater that Deep Impact's impactor left behind on the cometary surface.

NASA's Deep Impact mission reached the eight-kilometer-wide (five-mile-wide) comet Tempel 1 in 2005. On July 4, the probe deliberately smashed its impactor into the comet's nucleus, producing a cloud of fine material. A crater -- 100 meters wide (328 feet) by 30 meters (98 feet) deep -- was left behind. A treasure trove of compounds were spotted by the Deep Impact spacecraft and the explosion could be observed from Earth. In 2011, the recycled Stardust-NExT mission visited comet Tempel 1 for the second time.

The fifth space probe encounter with a comet happened on Nov. 4, 2010. NASA's recycled Deep Impact probe -- now the EPOXI mission -- visited comet Hartley 2, examining its strange-shaped nucleus. Described as a "peanut" or "chicken drumstick," this comet is an oddity. During its close approach of under 700 kilometers (435 miles), EPOXI photographed the comet's irregular topography: two rough lobes connected by a smooth center. Jets of gas could be seen being ejected from discrete locations. During the Hartley 2 flyby press conference at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), mission scientists expressed their surprise that these jets of vapor are being emitted from sun-facing and shaded regions on the comet surface. Needless to say, analysis of the Hartley 2 flyby data will keep scientists busy for some time to come. "This is an exploration moment," remarked Ed Weiler, NASA's Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, during the conference.

On Feb. 14, 2011, the veteran Stardust-NExT (New Exploration of Tempel) mission made history by visiting a comet for the second time. Comet Tempel 1 was first encountered by NASA's Deep Impact mission in 2005 after smashing the cometary nucleus with an impactor. This second encounter provided scientists with an unprecedented opportunity to study the same comet after six years of orbiting the sun. Preliminary findings suggested Tempel 1 has undergone some erosion during those six years in deep space. Also, the impact crater left behind by Deep Impact was imaged during the Stardust-NExT flyby and it appeared to match the size and shape predicted after the 2005 impact. However, the crater appeared smoother than expected, so work is ongoing to analyze the 72 photographs taken by the flyby to understand the processes shaping the comet's nucleus.

At 5:29 a.m. EDT (9:29 a.m. GMT) on Aug. 6, 2014, the European Rosetta spacecraft completed a 6.5 minute-long engine burn to insert itself into orbit around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Once under the influence of the comet's weak gravity, the spacecraft began to carry out a series of triangular loops, taking several days to complete. The long-duration mission is the first of its kind, where the spacecraft will study the comet from orbit, watching for surface changes as it approaches the sun, making perihelion (the point of closest solar approach). In November, a small lander called Philae will touch down on the surface to drill into the comet's material, revealing its small-scale composition. This photograph from Rosetta was captured on Aug. 3 when the probe was fast approaching the comet at a distance of less than 300 kilometers.

READ MORE: Rosetta Probe Makes Historic Comet Rendezvous