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Using fluorescent lights, Kerry Sieh and Charles Rubin of the Earth Observatory of Singapore look for charcoal and shells for radiocarbon dating. | Earth Observatory of Singapore
Archaeology

5,000-Year-Long Tsunami Record Found in Guano-Encrusted Sumatran Cave

The discovery of sediment layers in a seaside cave represents the longest record of tsunamis in the Indian Ocean, and the clearest record of tsunamis anywhere in the world.

Archaeologist Patrick Daly (wearing hat), Kerry Sieh (pointing), Charles Rubin (second from left), Benjamin Horton, and Jedrzej Majewski (behind Daly) are seen in an Indonesian sea cave. | Earth Observatory of Singapore
The stratigraphy of the sea cave in Sumatra excavated by scientists from the Earth Observatory of Singapore, Rutgers, and other institutions shows lighter bands of sand deposited by tsunamis over a period of 5,000 years and darker bands of organic material, largely consisting of bat guano. | Earth Observatory of Singapore