"We've learned about the hospital from contemporary historical documents, most of which are written in Latin," Re'em and Forestany said.
The accounts mentioned a sophisticated structure that was "as large and as organized as a modern hospital," the archaeologists said.
Indeed, the building had different wings and departments for patients suffering from different medical conditions. In times of emergency, it could take in up to 2,000 patients from all religions.
"There is information about Crusaders who ensured their Jewish patients received kosher food," said the archaeologists.
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However, the level of medical skills wasn't as good as the hospital's organization.
"They were completely ignorant in all aspects of medicine and sanitation," Re'em and Forestany said.
Examples ranged from crosses carved into skulls to remove evil spirits and headaches to legs amputated just because of small infected wounds.
"The Muslim Arab population was instrumental in assisting the Crusaders in establishing the hospital and teaching them medicine. Arab culture has always held the medical profession in high regard and Arab physicians were famous far and wide," the IAA archaeologists said.