Cattle aren't known for their intelligence. Perhaps it's because their family tree has a very skinny trunk.
Genetic evidence suggests all "taurine" cattle (the most commonly recognized breed) descend from only about 80 females and came from a single region in what is now Iran about 10,500 years ago. A study in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution traced the modern global herd's heritage back to its ancestral home on the range.
The study compared mitochondrial DNA extracted from 15 preserved ancient cattle's bones to modern cattle and found little variation. Little variation meant the founding population didn't have many different versions of the mitochondrial genes to start with.
Earlier research published in PloS ONE suggested that taurine cattle may have later received a small genetic boost from European aurochs. Aurochs were the super-sized ancestors of our modern hamburger on the hoof.
The size and nasty disposition of the wild auroch (Bos primigenius) would have made it a formidable beast to tame for the ancient Iranians. That difficulty is possibly why domestication only occurred with a small number of animals. The authors of the paper in Molecular Biology and Evolution suggested that only humans who had settled down into villages would have had the ability to domesticate the auroch.