The researchers also found a racial skew to the data. Blacks, Native Americans and Hispanics all had higher stop/arrest rates than whites or Asians. African Americans were also more likely to be stopped, then arrested.
"Blacks have high arrest and stop rates, and per capita are much more likely than whites to die at the hands of police," the authors write. "However, when blacks are stopped or arrested, they are no more likely than whites to be injured or die during that incident."
"Ratios aside, even one person unnecessarily killed or injured by the police is one too many, and every racial/ethnic group has mourned losses from undue force," the authors add.
Deaths or injuries were more common among older age groups and seen more often in men than in women. Young people are more often arrested, however.
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But what about the officers themselves? According to the data, they are more likely to be injured but face a lower threat to loss of life. An estimated 67,000 law enforcement personnel were assaulted in 2012. Of those, 18,600 required medical treatment for injury while another 48 died, the researchers write.
The study used data from a combination of sources, including the Vital Statistics Mortality Census; the 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project nationwide inpatient and emergency department samples; two censuses of deaths produced by the Washington Post and The Guardian; FBI reports for 2012 and 2014 arrests; and the 2011 Police Public Contact Survey.