"Rosetta -- the mission -- should become a key element for our understanding of the history of the solar system," Stephan Ulamec, project manager for the spacecraft's lander, told Discovery News.
For example, he added, "it would be really interesting to find out whether the organic chemistry that is relevant for life is there on comets."
ANALYSIS: Asteroid Mission Modeled with LEGOs
The lander, known as Philae, is outfitted with 10 science instruments to tackle a wide range of studies, including an analysis for organic molecules and experiments to test a molecule's symmetrical construction, or chirality.
Amino acids on Earth, for example, are "left-handed" while sugars in DNA and RNA are "right-handed."
Provided the lander makes it to 67P's surface and successfully drills and heats a sample, released gases can be scrutinized for chirality.
"Is it left or right? Or is it 50-50? And if it is 50-50 why do we have only left ones on Earth? Whatever is the outcome, it is exciting," Ulamec said.
Landing on 67P is far from assured. For starters, engineers designed Philae not knowing what type of surface it would encounter. One of the first orders of business for the Rosetta science team will be to scrutinize pictures of the comet to find a safe landing site.