Space & Innovation

Carnivorous Plant Fossil Trapped in Amber

The find has shed light on the origins of a plant that traps its food using leaves that act like fly paper.

Rare fossils of a carnivorous plant have been found preserved in a piece of Baltic amber.

The find has shed light on the origins of a plant that traps its food using leaves that act like fly paper.

The rare fossils, described in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, date back to between 35 and 47 million years ago, during the Eocene.

"This is the first discovery of a carnivorous plant fossil of this type," says one of the study's authors, Professor Alexander Schmidt, of the University of Gottingen in Germany.

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The researchers suggest the fossil may be an early member of the Roridulacea family of carnivorous plants, which includes Roridula.

They found the fossil leaves are strewn with multicellular stalked glands or tentacles and unicellular hairs closely resembling those found on the leaves of Roridula, which is endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa.

Roridula traps insects on sticky leaves that act like fly paper and relies on resident symbiotic insects to digest its hapless prey.

"Carnivorous plants are found in many modern plant families, each with their own way of catching prey," says Schmidt.

"This specific trap is unique to the plant in South Africa."

Widespread distribution Schmidt says the leaves were well preserved and very distinct from other flowering plant leaves, and were able to be compared with modern plant families still around today.

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The researchers say the discovery shows the distribution of the Roridulacea family of carnivorous plants was far more wide spread during the Eocene than previously thought, challenging earlier notions about a Gondwanan origin of this family.

"We didn't expect to find these leaves in the European fossil record, because Roridula is restricted to South Africa," says Schmidt.

"However the amber insect fossil record does include many examples of Eocene insects that are today only found in areas like South Africa and Australia."

This means that while Europe wasn't geographically very far from its current location during the Eocene, Schmidt believes the climate of the day must have been slightly warmer.

Schmidt says most carnivorous plants on Earth today have no fossil record, the exception being seeds from the sundew Aldrovanda.

"Because they're not large, or made of wood, and because they decay quickly, carnivorous plants don't survive easily in the rock record, and so amber provides a chance to preserve something that is so rare," he says.

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Schmidt and colleagues discovered two tiny leaves from the ancient carnivorous plant encased in Baltic amber which had been collected by a Hamburg couple who regularly collect and trade in amber.

"Baltic amber is the world's largest amber deposit, containing many fossils of insects and other arthropods, as well as some plant fossils," says Schmidt.

The amber was originally extracted from a mine near Kaliningrad in Russia.

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While the tiny fossilised leaves were each only five millimetres long, Schmidt believes the original plant would have had much larger leaves as well.

"We have a problem with the preservation of organisms in amber, because resin flows from trees are usually too small to trap larger animals or larger fragments of plants, it's hard to enclose something the size of a maple leaf in a resin flow," says Schmidt.

"This discovery adds to a larger project trying to reconstruct the habitat of the Baltic amber forests," he adds.

"We want to find out if it was a dense dark forest, or if it was more a landscape of meadows intermixed with open woodland."

A fossil of a carnivorous plant has been found encased in Baltic amber.

Sept. 15, 2011 --

A stunning array of prehistoric feathers, including dinosaur protofeathers, has been discovered in Late Cretaceous amber from Canada. The 78 to 79-million-year-old amber preserved the feathers in vivid detail, including some of their diverse colors. The collection, published in this week's Science, is among the first to reveal all major evolutionary stages of feather development in non-avian dinosaurs and birds. In this slide, an isolated barb from a vaned feather is visible trapped within a tangled mass of spider's web.

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"These specimens were most likely blown into the tacky resin, or were plucked from an animal as it brushed against resin on a tree trunk," lead author Ryan McKellar told Discovery News. "The fact that we have found some specimens trapped within spider webs in the amber would suggest that wind played an important role in bringing the feathers into contact with the resin," added McKellar, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Alberta's Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. The feather filaments shown here are similar to protofeathers that have been associated with some dinosaur skeletons.

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McKellar and his team made the discovery after screening over 4,000 amber samples from Grassy Lake, Alberta. The amber, collected by the Leuck family, is now housed at the Royal Tyrrell Museum. The researchers ruled out that the inclusions were mammal hairs, plant or fungal remains based on their structure. Some dinosaur fossils retain skin impressions, so the scientists could match dinosaur protofeathers (hair-like projections) to some of the objects within the amber. Here, a feather is visible near a plant bug. The high number of coils in the this feather suggests it could have come from a water-diving bird.

The translucent tree resin provides a window into feather evolution, from non-avian dinosaurs to birds. "Part of what makes this particular set of feathers interesting is that we find the very simple Stage I and II feathers alongside advanced feathers that are very similar to those of modern birds, Stages IV and V," McKellar said. The researchers aren't yet certain why feathers first evolved, but the density of the protofeathers suggests that they helped dinosaurs with regulating temperature. Dinosaurs such as Troodon or Deinonychus may have produced the feathers. The cork-screw shaped structures in this slide are the tightly coiled bases of feather barbules.

As feathers continued to change, they developed tufts, barbs, branching features, little hooks, and more. Some of the most advanced feathers in the collection are comparable to those of modern grebes. They appear to help diving, indicating that some of the prehistoric birds were divers. McKellar suspects the marine birds might have been Hesperornithiformes, a specialized flightless diving bird from the Dinosaur Era. This is a white belly feather of a modern grebe, showing coiled bases comparable to those seen in the Cretaceous specimen.

Some of the feathers appear transparent now, but would have been white in life. A range of colors for the feathers is evident, though, with grays, reds and various shades of brown preserved. This, and prior research, suggests that non-avian dinosaurs and prehistoric birds could be quite flashy. The pigment within this fossilized feather suggests it would have originally been medium- or dark-brown in color.

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In an accompanying "Perspectives" article in Science, Mark Norell points out that the dinosaur Sinosauropteryx is thought to have had a reddish banded tail, while Anchiornis likely possessed a striking black body, banded wings and a reddish head comb. Norell, chair and curator of the American Museum of Natural History's Division of Paleontology, told Discovery News that the newly discovered feathers are "very exciting." Here, a feather barb within Late Cretaceous Canadian amber shows some indication of original coloration.

Some dino aficionados have wondered if DNA could be extracted from the feathers. "Almost anything is possible," Norell said, quickly adding that most DNA-extraction studies have been conducted on much younger amber, dating to around 20-30 million years ago, and even those led to questionable results. "Maybe bits and pieces could be identified, but not the whole genome." Shown are 16 clumped feathers in Late Cretaceous amber.

People with amber objects, such as jewelry, also probably don't have prehistoric feather inclusions, since such items are extremely rare and dealers isolate the best pieces. Nevertheless, McKellar said, "There is some hope that you could have small feather fragments that have been overlooked." An unpigmented feather and a mite in Canadian Late Cretaceous amber.