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Then, in 1920, Yankees pitcher Carl Mays threw an extraordinarily hard submarine pitch, which rose from ground level, struck Cleveland Indians batter Ray Chapman in the head, and killed him. Chapman didn't react to the pitch at all. It appeared that he didn't even see it coming.
Chapman's death led to a swift and dramatic shift in the rules of baseball. Pitchers could no longer put foreign substances on the ball or their hands other than rosin, which is an approved powder that helps make sweaty hands less slippery. And when balls got dirty during play, umpires replaced them.
Instead of putting a halt to the cheating, though, the new rules only drove pitchers to get sneakier about their tricks. In the 1960s and 70s, when Baldwin was playing, pitchers used Vaseline to lubricate balls until K-Y Jelly came on the market and became the baseball-moistener of choice. The water-based lubricant evaporated during flight, making it almost impossible for umps to detect.
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Other times, pitchers coated the ball with talcum powder, which was white and -- unlike baby powder -- odorless. The powder would fly off in flight, and it could make balls sink more quickly than expected. Pitchers might hide small bits of emery board on their belts or under their caps to sneak on a scuff mark or two. Even today, catchers may intentionally throw a ball that bounces right before a game begins, hoping the umpires won't notice.