A little-known phenomenon that is spread unevenly in bodies of water, including in the Arctic, acidification poses a threat to corals, mollusks and other shell organisms such as pteropods, also known as sea angels and sea butterflies, whose ability to calcify has been altered.
Some species, such as the brittle star which is similar to a starfish, face a direct risk of extinction, and fish stocks may also be affected.
As a result, industrial fishing, tourism and the lifestyles of indigenous peoples are at stake.
However, other species could benefit from the rising acidification, scientists said.
"Uncertainty is not an excuse for inaction," said Sam Dupont of Sweden's Gothenburg University.
Scientists called for politicians to once again put climate change at the top of the political agenda, regretting that the issue had been overshadowed by the economic crisis.
"We have to think beyond this bank crisis," said Carol Turley of the Plymouth Marine Laboratory in Britain.