Analysis of the mummy's microbiome also revealed the presence of other disease caused by bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile, from which C. difficile infection that causes diarrhea and colitis originates, and some types of human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted virus which causes cervical cancer.
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While the recovered T. cruzi appeared more primitive than modern forms of the modern parasite, it was 98 to 99 percent similar to today's virus.
"This shows that while T. cruzi had to adapt to new conditions in the human guest, HPV was already accustomed to the human body since remote times," Fornaciari said.
Most interestingly, the researchers identified many antibiotic-resistant genes that would have made treatment with modern broad-spectrum antibiotics -- such as fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, quinolones and vancomycin -- ineffective.
"In particular, vancomycin was discovered more than 50 years ago, and vancomycin-resistant genes have been mainly implicated with the increased use of this antibiotic," the researchers wrote.