Ancient Humans, Dogs Hunted Mastodon in Florida
The first Floridians were a hearty bunch that hunted big game, kept dogs and crafted sharp stone tools.
Hunter-gatherers pursuing big game and likely accompanied by dogs were the first known human settlers of the American Southeast, stone tools and the remains of a butchered mastodon show.
The findings, reported in the journal Science Advances, provide intriguing clues about the migration paths of the earliest Americans, how they lived, and what led to the extinction 12,600 years ago of several large native mammals.
The stone tools and mastodon remains date to about 14,600 years ago and were discovered in a Florida river at a site near Tallahassee called Page-Ladson, which is now one of the oldest radiocarbon-dated sites in the Americas.
Navy Seal diver Buddy Page first spotted the underwater site on property owned by the Ladson family, hence the location's name. It predates the widespread Native American Clovis culture and is the same age as another pre-Clovis site, Monte Verde in Chile.
Florida and Chile are clearly a long way from Asia, where genetic testing suggests the first Americans came from via the Bering Land Bridge area of Alaska, but the researchers suggest a few possible migration routes.
"The only logical way people could have come to Florida by 14,600 years ago is if their ancestors entered the Americas by boat along the Pacific Coast," Michael Waters of Texas A&M University told Discovery News. "They could have traveled by boat to central Mexico, crossed and come along the Gulf Coast. They could have entered the Americas via the Columbia River and then traveled inland to the Mississippi River and followed it down and entered the Gulf Coast, eventually making their way to Florida."
Waters, Jessi Halligan of Florida State University, and their team worked in near zero visibility waters in Florida's murky Aucilla River over a two-year period to excavate animal remains and stone tools, which included a biface -- a knife used for cutting and butchering meat.
Deep, parallel linear grooves on the end of the mastodon's found tusk suggest that the animal was butchered or scavenged and literally eaten to the bone, with the hunters likely eating tender meat at the tusk's base.
The geology of the site, as well as pollen and algae finds, suggest that the hunter-gatherers encountered the mastodon next to a small pond that both humans and animals used as a water source, the researchers believe.
Waters said that the prehistoric "people knew how to find game, fresh water and materials for making tools. These people were well adapted to this environment. The site is a slam-dunk pre-Clovis site with unequivocal artifacts, clear stratigraphy and thorough dating."
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Another research team previously excavated the site and found what they believed were dog remains, so dogs "would most likely have been associated with the early hunters," Waters said, indicating that the remains would be studied further. If confirmed, they could be the earliest known evidence for dogs in the Americas.
In terms of other animals, he said, "The animal bones from the site tell us that mastodon, sloth, giant armadillo, dire wolf, mammoth, horse, camel and giant bison were present. These and other animals became extinct by 12,600 years ago."
So humans co-existed with all of these animals for at least 2,000 years before they died out, Halligan said.
Waters added, "The primary driver of extinction was likely climate and environmental changes that occurred at the end of the last ice age. However, if people were hunting these animals for 2,000 years prior to extinction, they must have made some impact."
Halligan suggested that the impact might have varied, depending on the location.
He explained, "We cannot expect that people in Chile, Oregon and Florida were facing the same challenges and living in exactly the same way."
David Anderson, professor and associate head of the University of Tennessee's Department of Anthropology, told Discovery News, "The new artifacts, dates and other lines of evidence provide a compelling case for early human use of the site and, by extension, the region."
A recreation of a mastodon.
In 2007 divers mapping the underwater caves on Mexico's Eastern Yucatán Peninsula, about 12 miles north of the city of Tulum, stumbled into a very large chamber. "The floor disappeared under us, and we could not see across to the other side," Alberto Nava of Bay Area Underwater Explorers, told Discovery News. They named the pit Hoyo Negro (Spanish for Black Hole).
Here, divers Susan Bird and Alberto Nava explore Hoyo Negro.
About two months later, armed with powerful underwater lights, Nava and other diver colleagues reached the floor of Hoyo Negro at about 170 feet. They found themselves in a bell-shaped structure 200 feet in diameter, whose center was littered with large boulders stacked on top of each other.
This picture shows the immensity of the chamber and the complexity of the boulder strewn bottom.
"As our eyes got accustomed to the environment, we started to notice large animal bones resting at the bottom and on the walls of the pit," Nava said. Overall, international researchers led by anthropologist James Chatters identified the remains of more than 26 large mammals. They included a gomphothere, an extinct elephant-like creature, which was dated to around 40,000 years ago, saber-toothed cats and giant ground sloths, which were largely extinct in North America by 13,000 years ago. Extant species included puma, bobcat, coyote, Baird's tapir, collared peccary and a bear. In this picture, Nava inspects a forelimb of an extinct Shasta ground sloth, a species not previously found so far in the Americas.
One diver then spotted a human skull resting on the top of a small ledge. The small cranium lay upside down and rested on the left humerus (upper arm bone) with other remains nearby. "It had a perfect set of teeth and dark eye sockets looking back at us. We could see the rest of the upper torso spread to the left and down on the ledge," Nava said.
The small skeleton, named "Naia" by the dive team (meaning water nymph in Greek) belonged to a female measuring only 4'10" tall. She is estimated to have been between 15 and 16 years old at the time of her death. "When Naia and the animals entered the cave, the near-surface tunnels were dry, so they walked in from a ground-level entrance, probably a sink hole. They walked a considerable distance, as much as 600 meters," Chatters said. He speculates that Naia, and the larges animals in particular, were drawn by a large, ephemeral pool of water in the bottom of Hoyo Negro. "Yucatan was a dry place back then. Walking in the dark, they fell into the deep pit, from which there was no exit," Chatters said.
Using photography, videography, three dimensional modeling and sampling, researchers studied the skeleton without removing it from its watery grave. The human remains were dated between 13,000 and 12,000 years, making the skeleton one of the six oldest humans yet found in the Americas, certainly the oldest and most complete.
Here, divers Susan Bird and Alberto Nava transport the Hoyo Negro skull to an underwater turntable so that it can be photographed for 3d modeling.
Naia does not feature the broader and rounder skulls of today's Native Americans. She bore a long and high cranium, a pronounced forehead, a low and flat nose. Her teeth projected outward from her small face. Such different faces, skulls and teeth have led speculations that prehistoric Americans might represent an earlier migration from Southeast Asia or even Europe via a submerged land mass where the Bering Sea is now. But mitochondrial DNA testings -- maternally inherited DNA -- suggest a different scenario.
Here, diver Susan Bird works at the bottom of Hoyo Negro and carefully brushes Naia's skull.
DNA testing carried out from Naia's upper right third molar indicates Paleoamericans and Native Americans descended from the same land in Beringia, a now partially submerged landmass including parts of Siberia, Alaska and the Yukon. The researchers found that Naia belonged to a mitochondrial lineage common to modern Native Americans and is found only in the Americas. The presence of a genetic marker indicates that the girl was maternally related to living Native Americans, and traces her ancestry to the same source population as contemporary Native Americans. According to the researchers, the craniofacial divergences are probably the result of evolutionary changes that happened in Beringia over the last 9,000 years. Shown is Naia's upper right third molar, which was used for both radiocarbon testing and DNA extraction.