Water-dwelling species would have still had some resources. Small mammals and reptiles could have burrowed underground.
"The different habitats of the dinosaurs and small mammals and reptiles would have been key factors in determining their extinction or survival," he said.
Some dinosaurs, of course, did survive: birds.
As for the dinosaurs that were not immediately killed by the asteroid, the drastic climate change following the asteroid strike would have led to loss of soil moisture and vegetation in many areas.
Kaiho said that herbivorous dinosaurs would have consumed the ever-decreasing available plants, resulting in the eventual disappearance of such food, "similar to overgrazing leading to desertification today."
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As the plant-eating dinosaurs died out, so too did the remaining carnivorous dinosaurs, suggests the new paper.
In terms of dinosaurs literally going up in smoke, Manabu Sakamoto of the University of Reading, who has conducted other research on the dinosaur extinction event, told Discovery News, "Some dinosaurs definitely would have been instantly killed in the impact."
Sakamoto added that still other dinosaurs might have perished in a tsunami caused by the blast, but "the majority of the remaining dinosaurs would have likely starved to death as vegetation died out owing to the layer of ash that blacked out the sky (nuclear winter)."
RELATED: Dinosaur Die Out Was Gradual, Miserable, Painful
University of Florida geochemist Andrea Dutton authored another paper on the subject that was published last week in the journal Nature Communications. Her study suggested that volcanic activity prior to the asteroid hit was intense and likely contributed to climate change even before the fateful strike.
"The impact may have delivered the final blow, but it is clear that the ecosystem was under a lot of stress before that from the volcanic eruption," she told Discovery News.
She is not sure yet if the findings of Kaiho and his team align with those of her team.
She explained, "Warming from the eruption may have been countered by the cooling from the soot in the atmosphere, leaving not much of a temperature change -- if they canceled each other out. This is what we see at the boundary, not much temperature change, so what we need to do now is model these two events together to see if they match the data."