Animals

50-Million-Year-Old Mite Chomps Into Ant's Head

A chunk of amber preserves the exact moment, 50 million years ago, when a mite attached itself to an ant's head and began to feast. Continue reading →

Fifty million years ago, a mite attached itself to an ant's head and likely began to feed, only to be entombed in a blob of tree resin that fossilized, preserving the moment for us to see today.

The piece of amber, described in the latest issue of Biology Letters, represents the earliest known evidence for an ecological association between mites and ants.

"This discovery is important because these parasitic mites in the genus Myrmozercon still live in association with ants today," lead author Jason Dunlop told Discovery News.

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"The amber fossil shows that this specialized group of mites was around 50 million years ago and had already starting living with ants back then," continued Dunlop, who is curator of arachnids and myriapods at the Museum of Natural History, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science. "It is one of the oldest records of a mite group called the mesostigmatids, which are extremely rare as fossils."

(And if you're curious as to what a myriapod is, that term refers to centipedes, millipedes and related animals that all have elongated bodies with numerous leg-bearing segments.)

Dunlop and his team found the ant-mite specimen within a collection of amber originally obtained from the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Baltic coast.

While the researchers cannot conclusively say that the mite was feeding, that's certainly what it looks like.

Ants don't have a heart and lungs, since oxygen can just pass through their tiny bodies. They do have a colorless "blood," however, called the hemolymph.

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Mites have a taste for hemolymph, and to this day may be seen sucking it out of bees, ants and other creatures.

"In a wider context, the amber fossil is the oldest indication that certain mites were living with the Hymenoptera group of insects (i.e. ants, bees and wasps)," Dunlop said. "Some mites related to our amber fossils, like the Varroa mite, are important pests of honey bees today. Our fossil shows when these parasitic mites, which are an economic problem for humans today, may have first appeared."

If you have a genuine piece of amber (there are a lot of fakes), it might contain important inclusions like this. Amber looks great as jewelry, but it can preserve some rather cool and slightly macabre happenings, as for this Eocene era piece.

A 50-million-year-old mite and ant are preserved in Baltic amber.

Sept. 15, 2011 --

A stunning array of prehistoric feathers, including dinosaur protofeathers, has been discovered in Late Cretaceous amber from Canada. The 78 to 79-million-year-old amber preserved the feathers in vivid detail, including some of their diverse colors. The collection, published in this week's Science, is among the first to reveal all major evolutionary stages of feather development in non-avian dinosaurs and birds. In this slide, an isolated barb from a vaned feather is visible trapped within a tangled mass of spider's web.

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"These specimens were most likely blown into the tacky resin, or were plucked from an animal as it brushed against resin on a tree trunk," lead author Ryan McKellar told Discovery News. "The fact that we have found some specimens trapped within spider webs in the amber would suggest that wind played an important role in bringing the feathers into contact with the resin," added McKellar, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Alberta's Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. The feather filaments shown here are similar to protofeathers that have been associated with some dinosaur skeletons.

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McKellar and his team made the discovery after screening over 4,000 amber samples from Grassy Lake, Alberta. The amber, collected by the Leuck family, is now housed at the Royal Tyrrell Museum. The researchers ruled out that the inclusions were mammal hairs, plant or fungal remains based on their structure. Some dinosaur fossils retain skin impressions, so the scientists could match dinosaur protofeathers (hair-like projections) to some of the objects within the amber. Here, a feather is visible near a plant bug. The high number of coils in the this feather suggests it could have come from a water-diving bird.

The translucent tree resin provides a window into feather evolution, from non-avian dinosaurs to birds. "Part of what makes this particular set of feathers interesting is that we find the very simple Stage I and II feathers alongside advanced feathers that are very similar to those of modern birds, Stages IV and V," McKellar said. The researchers aren't yet certain why feathers first evolved, but the density of the protofeathers suggests that they helped dinosaurs with regulating temperature. Dinosaurs such as Troodon or Deinonychus may have produced the feathers. The cork-screw shaped structures in this slide are the tightly coiled bases of feather barbules.

As feathers continued to change, they developed tufts, barbs, branching features, little hooks, and more. Some of the most advanced feathers in the collection are comparable to those of modern grebes. They appear to help diving, indicating that some of the prehistoric birds were divers. McKellar suspects the marine birds might have been Hesperornithiformes, a specialized flightless diving bird from the Dinosaur Era. This is a white belly feather of a modern grebe, showing coiled bases comparable to those seen in the Cretaceous specimen.

Some of the feathers appear transparent now, but would have been white in life. A range of colors for the feathers is evident, though, with grays, reds and various shades of brown preserved. This, and prior research, suggests that non-avian dinosaurs and prehistoric birds could be quite flashy. The pigment within this fossilized feather suggests it would have originally been medium- or dark-brown in color.

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In an accompanying "Perspectives" article in Science, Mark Norell points out that the dinosaur Sinosauropteryx is thought to have had a reddish banded tail, while Anchiornis likely possessed a striking black body, banded wings and a reddish head comb. Norell, chair and curator of the American Museum of Natural History's Division of Paleontology, told Discovery News that the newly discovered feathers are "very exciting." Here, a feather barb within Late Cretaceous Canadian amber shows some indication of original coloration.

Some dino aficionados have wondered if DNA could be extracted from the feathers. "Almost anything is possible," Norell said, quickly adding that most DNA-extraction studies have been conducted on much younger amber, dating to around 20-30 million years ago, and even those led to questionable results. "Maybe bits and pieces could be identified, but not the whole genome." Shown are 16 clumped feathers in Late Cretaceous amber.

People with amber objects, such as jewelry, also probably don't have prehistoric feather inclusions, since such items are extremely rare and dealers isolate the best pieces. Nevertheless, McKellar said, "There is some hope that you could have small feather fragments that have been overlooked." An unpigmented feather and a mite in Canadian Late Cretaceous amber.