The full list is available at ScienceDebate.org/20qs.
The 56 groups that helped create the list by crowd sourcing the questions has asked for the candidates to answer the questions by September 6.
All are described by AAAS as non-partisan groups, including the National Academy of Sciences, the American Geophysical Union, the American Chemical Society and the Union of Concerned Scientists.
RELATED: 'Innovate,' 'Reinvent,' Says President Obama
The effort was organized by ScienceDebate.org, which commissioned a national poll last that found 87 percent of Americans said it was important that candidates for president and Congress have a basic understanding of the science informing public policy issues.
"Taken collectively, these twenty issues have at least as profound an impact on voters' lives as those more frequently covered by journalists, including candidates' views on economic policy, foreign policy, and faith and values," said ScienceDebate.org chair Shawn Otto.
Otto urged the candidates -- Democrat Hillary Clinton, Republican Donald Trump, Libertarian Gary Johnson, and the Green Party's Jill Stein -- to answer the questions "in writing and to discuss them on television."