1896 Horseless Carriage Was a Hybrid Car
The 1896 Armstrong phaeton hybrid has a 6.5-liter boxer-twin gasoline engine and a flywheel that serves as an electric motor.
The Toyota Prius may have started the era of modern hybrid cars when it debuted in Japan in 1997, but it was far from the first hybrid vehicle.
Ferdinand Porsche actually designed a handful of hybrid and electric cars with Vienna-based carriage builder Jacob Lohner and Company, starting in 1898.
But there's another vehicle that predates even that effort.
It's this 1896 Armstrong phaeton hybrid, which resurfaced at the Bonhams car auction during the recent Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance-and may be the world's first hybrid.
That hybrid horseless carriage was designed by Harry E. Dey, and built by the Armstrong Manufacturing Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut, according a Hemmings blog post detailing the car.
Dey was an advocate of electric cars, and produced a design for one in 1895, which brought him to the attention of the Rogers Mechanical Carriage Company.
Rogers had been importing cars from France and wanted a homegrown design, but wouldn't accept an all-electric car because of concerns over range limitations.
So Dey designed his hybrid system, which include a 6.5-liter boxer-twin gasoline engine and a flywheel. The flywheel served as an electric motor when the car was underway, drawing power from onboard batteries. But it could also help start the car, a remarkable feature in the era of hand cranks.
It also served as a generator, recharging the batteries, powering onboard accessories like lights, and even providing a degree of regenerative braking. The flywheel was even reportedly powerful enough to power the carriage by itself for short distances.
Armstrong was contracted to build the prototype, which appeared in an 1896 issue of "Horseless Age" magazine (presumably the "Motor Trend" of its day). Rogers formed the American Horseless Carriage Company to market the car, but neither entity survived past 1896.
Armstrong took custody of the prototype, which sat in a corner of its factory until 1963. It then passed through the hands of several collectors and was eventually restored.
It sold for $483,400 at the Bonhams Amelia Island auction -- not bad for such an obscure machine.
Few people may have heard of it, but all of today's hybrid drivers may owe Harry E. Dey and his car a tip of the hat.
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The 1896 Armstrong phaeton may be the world's first gas-electric vehicle.
Petro is so 1973. Two words if you don't know what we're talking about: Gas lines. With research in alternative energy at an all-time high, scientists are coming up with more ways than one to power vehicles, from
to a compressed air-powered car in India. We take a look at 10 alternatives that don't require a drop of traditional petroleum-based fuel. Let's go for a ride.
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