King County Sheriff's Office - Air Support Unit
On March 22, 2014, a deadly landslide struck in Washington State, about 50 miles north of Seattle on the banks of the Stillaguamish River.
Hurricane Isaac approached the Louisiana and
Although deadly, Hurricane Isaac scourged Louisiana with less ferocity than Hurricane Katrina did seven years ago. Katrina was one of American history's deadliest and costliest natural disasters. Part of what made Katrina such a tragedy was the inadequate emergency response from authorities. However, as intense as the outcry over the response to Katrina was, it pales in comparison to the repercussions of when one of history's deadliest storms struck what is now Bangladesh. Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan at that time, but the people of East Pakistan, as the region was called, suffered discrimination from the western portion of the nation and revolution was smoldering. The flames of nationalism and rebellion were fanned by the high winds of the massive Bhola cyclone which rushed in from the Bay of Bengal on November 10, 1970. The Pakistani government was criticized by locals and in the international media for failure to provide adequate disaster relief to East Pakistan, which may have contributed to the 300,000 to 500,000 people who perished in the storm and its aftermath. Soon after the cyclone, the storm of East Pakistan's outrage built into a war that tore Pakistan apart. The torment of war raged on until Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation from the flood of bloodshed that was the Bangladesh Liberation War. Throughout history massive storms have toppled human ambitions and left suffering and death in their wake. Particular natural disasters stand out from the line up of perpetrators as particularly devastating natural born killers.
Smoke rises from the Flagstaff Fire on the ou
The Day America Burned The wildfires that incinerated stretches of the American west this year were huge, but relatively few people lost their lives. On October 8, 1871 more people died in the flames of a wildfire than on any other day in recorded human history. On that day the Peshtigo Fire started in the forests of Wisconsin and was spread by a strong wind. The blaze quickly grew as it fed on trees left parched by a summer drought. The flames weren't extinguished until after they had snuffed out the lives of 1,200 – 2,500 people. The exact number is unknown because local records were also destroyed. The entire town of Peshtigo was consumed, leaving few to identify the charred corpses. On the same day, the Great Chicago Fire reduced much of the Windy City to ashes. Though Mrs. O'Leary's cow was later cleared of any culpability, the story of a kicking cow starting the fire became part of the legend surrounding the blaze that killed 300.
PHOTOS: Western Wildfires
Lake Nyos, less than two weeks after the dead
Nature's Gas Chamber Other natural disasters can destroy whole towns at once too. Besides malaria, venomous snakes and leopards, the forest of Cameroon is also home to a lake that kills villages with its belches. Lake Nyos released an estimated 1.2 cubic kilometers (0.29 cu. mi.) of carbon dioxide and noxious sulfurous gases on August 21, 1986. As the bubble of heavier-than-air gas spread along the ground, approximately 1,700 people were suffocated along with 3,500 livestock. The killing cloud spread death up to 25 km (16 mi) from the lake. The lake's gas problem comes from an underwater magma dome that is constantly leaking carbon dioxide into the water. As the concentration builds, a disturbance in the lake's waters can cause the gas to be released in a suffocating explosion. Now, a degassing system siphon's the gas saturated deeper waters up to the surface, where the gas escapes in harmless quantities.
PHOTOS: Eruption of Iceland's Grimsvotn Volcano
The rebuilt Palace of the Grand Master of the
4000 With One Bolt The Knights Hospitaller became the Knights of Rhodes after they lost control of Jerusalem to Muslim armies during the Crusades. They set up shop on the island of Rhodes in the 14th century by constructing a massive castle known as the Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes. The Knights also lost that stronghold to Muslim armies after the Turks conquered the islands and expelled not only the knights, but also the Greeks. Being expelled may have saved their lives. On April 3, 1856, a single bolt of lightning struck the steeple of the church attached to the palace. The Turks had been using the church and the storage area beneath the Palace as an ammo storehouse. When the fire found the gunpowder, an explosion leveled the 450 year old Palace and laid low 4,000 people. The Palace was rebuilt by the Italians in the early 20th century after they gained control of the island in 1912. The refurbished castle had the dubious distinction of hosting vacationing dictator Benito Mussolini after the Fascists rose in Italy.
PHOTOS: New World Heritage Sites
Pit 1 of the excavation of the terracotta arm
China Shattered by Quake Historical records in China extend unbroken for centuries. Included in those records are the body counts from some of the worst disasters in human history. An earthquake centered in Shaanxi province killed approximately 830,000 people on the morning of Jan. 23, 1556. In some areas, more than half the population was wiped out. One reason the toll was so high was that many residents lived in artificial caves dug into the soft soils of the area. The powdery soil collapsed in the quake, turning family homes into mass graves. Beneath those Shaanxi soils, the terracotta army of Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor, may have been shaken from their slumber by the heaving of the earth around them and the misery of their country above them.
ANALYSIS: The Pain and Beauty of China's "Earthquake Marriages"
Monument to the people of Wuhan, China overco
China Drowned by Flood Floods have also terrorized the Chinese many times in the country's long history. Six of the ten deadliest floods in history struck the Middle Kingdom between 1887 and 1975. The worst may have been the flood of 1931. Estimates range as high as four million dead. The 1931 flood occurred after a two year drought ended. Heavy snows in the winter led into a rainy spring and even wetter summer during which seven typhoons drenched the land. The Yellow (Huang He), Yangtze (Chang Jiang) and Huai Rivers all flooded and inundated much of the country's cropland. Whole villages were washed away as dikes and levees failed.
PHOTOS: Freak Beijing Storm Brings Severe Floods
Trash and debris cover the streets near homes
A Wave of Death Earthquakes and inundations can be deadly on their own, but together they pack a one-two punch of devastation. On Dec. 26, 2004, the third largest earthquake ever measured unleashed a wave that would wash away more lives than any other in history. More than 230,000 people died as the tsunami spread across the Indian Ocean from the quake's epicenter off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Fourteen countries were affected by the wave, especially Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand.
PHOTOS: Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Before and After
The caldera of the Mount Tambora volcano phot
Ring of Fire For those countries that fall into the true ring of fire, the only man in black is the Grim Reaper, not Johnny Cash. The ring of fire is a line of volcanoes around the perimeter of the Pacific Ocean where tectonic forces make earthquakes and volcanoes an ever present threat. Indonesia shines like a jewel of molten magma set in the ring of fire. During the past 500 years, the area that is now Indonesia has suffered more deadly volcanic eruptions than any other place. An ancient eruption of an Indonesian volcano in the 400s AD may have darkened the skies over an already crumbling Roman Empire and led to crop failures. More recently, nearly 100,000 perished in the eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815. The eruption darkened the global sky and caused the Year Without a Summer, when chilly temperatures again led to failed crops in Europe. The island of Krakatoa exploded in a gigantic eruption in 1883 that ended 36,000 lives. Mount Kelut killed more than 5,000 in 1919. The same volcano had taken out 10,000 people in 1586.
PHOTOS: Earth Perspectives Through the Ages
Deadly mudslides can unfold in any of the 50 U.S. states, but a combination of geologic factors makes the West Coast especially vulnerable to the type of destructive flow that pummeled northwest Washington on Saturday (March 22), geologists say.
Mudslides generally form when a massive layer of unconsolidated rock becomes waterlogged and slips under the force of gravity. The basic ingredients for a mudslide include large areas of unconsolidated rock, steep mountain slopes, and areas with shallow water tables that quickly become saturated with rain or snow water, particularly during short but intense spurts of precipitation, Noah Finnegan, a geologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, told Live Science. [See Photos of Washington Landslide's Destruction]
"The reason the West tends to have more landslides than the East is related to all three of these factors," Finnegan said. "In the West, active tectonics make for steeper slopes, the regional climate ensures that moisture is delivered over a relatively smaller portion of the year, and the rocks are often much weaker on the West Coast."
1. Weaker rocks
West Coast rocks are generally weaker than those in the East, because Western rocks are younger by millions of years. Through geologic time, the older formations out East have been exposed to extreme pressures and temperatures within the Earth's mantle that have made them harder and more compact than the more crumbly rocks out West, according to Jim O'Connor, a hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Oregon.
"The rocks back East are billions of years old and have been deeply buried in their history, and have been cooked and hardened," O'Connor told Live Science. "Whereas, not everywhere, but a lot of the rocks on the West Coast are younger sedimentary and volcanic rocks that just aren't deeply buried and haven't been hardened up like the rocks on the East Coast."
2. Thicker sediments
During the last ice age, glaciers on both coasts grinded against rocks and formed a loose sediment layer that sits beneath the top soil. Since the West Coast rock is younger and softer, the glaciers produced larger quantities of loose sand and stones and left behind thicker deposits, whereas the harder East Coast rocks did not give way as easily and did not produce as much loose material. The sediment layer that overlies West Coast terrain is therefore generally thicker and looser than that of the East, and more susceptible to losing grip and giving way to gravity, O'Connor said.
On March 22, 2014, a deadly landslide struck in Washington State, about 50 miles north of Seattle on the banks of the Stillaguamish River.King County Sheriff's Office - Air Support Unit
3. Steeper mountains
The peaks of old East Coast mountains are generally not as steep than those out west, largely because they have been exposed to millions more years of erosion. Just as river stones become more rounded and less jagged over time as the force of water and other rocks smooth them down, mountains give way to the elements and become less steep through time.
Not only have West Coast mountains experienced less long-term erosion, but some are also still tectonically active today, producing fresh, steep cliff faces that continue to grow upward.
4. More intense wet season
The National Weather Service has reported that, in the past 45 days, the region in which the Washington mudslide took place has experienced double its normal rainfall for this time of year, according to USA Today.
Such rapid delivery of precipitation does not allow time for water to flow deep underground, and causes sediment to become saturated much faster than it would if rainfall were distributed less intensely over a wider timeframe, as is more common on the East Coast.
"Rainfall is key," Finnegan told Live Science, explaining that large slides, like the one in Washington, respond to rainfall over weeks to months, whereas small slides respond over hours to days.
5. Tectonically active
While heavy rainfall alone can trigger mudslides, earthquakes also often instigate the flow, and tend to be more common on the more tectonically active West Coast than the East Coast. Officials in Snohomish County, Wash., where the mudslide occurred last week, reported that a 1.1 magnitude earthquake occurred about two weeks before the slide; even so, the U.S. Geological Survey has stated that the earthquake did not cause this event. More likely, recent rain and soil saturation triggered the lethal landslide, the USGS said.
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This story originally appeared on LiveScience.com.
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