The pulsar and its planet are part of the Milky Way's plane of stars and lie 4.000 light-years away in the constellation of Serpens (the Snake).
Extreme Space Weather
Oct. 3, 2011 --
With hurricanes, floods, massive thunderstorms, heat waves and wildfires, we might be inclined to believe that the weather on Earth is sometimes less than hospitable to the life that inhabits it. But compared to other planets, stars and other bodies in the cosmos, the weather on Earth is downright mild. In this slide show, explore what conditions are like elsewhere in the universe. By the time you're done reading this slide show, you'll know exactly what to say the next time you hear someone whining about the weather: "Quit complaining. At least we don't live on HD 209458b."
Credit: Paul A. Kempton
The Sauna Planet "It's not the heat; it's the humidity" is a common expression on especially muggy days in the heat of the summer. But on exoplanet GJ 1214b, we guarantee you won't notice the difference. Located about 40 light-years from our planet, this super-Earth waterworld is believed to possess an atmosphere of dense steam. The exoplanet is between two and 10 times larger than Earth and located approximately 70 times closer to its parent star. Essentially, this planet is one giant sauna, turned up to temperatures in excess of 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit (537 degrees Celsius).
Mars Storms Hurricanes are the largest storms on Earth. With powerful wind gusts and heavy rains, the storms can take a devastating toll on millions at a time. But in terms of size, they can't compare to the dust storms that can roll across Mars and affect the entire planet. In fact, some storms are so large that amateur astronomers can occasionally view them using ground based telescopes. During dust storms, wind gusts can reach up to 300 miles per hour, far stronger than any storm ever recorded on Earth.
Supersonic Planet If you're a windsurfing enthusiast, HD189733b may be just the right place for you. That is, at least it would be if it weren't 60 light-years away and orbiting its parent star so closely. Classified as a hot Jupiter, this gas giant hosts wind speeds that exceed the speed of sound. And since, as Adam Showman of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory explains, the speed of sound of HD189733b is 10 times faster than it is on Earth, that's a pretty significant accomplishment. To put a number on it, the winds can reach speeds of around 6,700 miles (10,870 kilometers) per hour. That should help to cool down any potential visitors, since the temperature on the surface of the planet facing the sun can reach 1,700 degrees Fahrenheit (926 degrees Celsius).
Tidally Locked World Located some 150 light-years from Earth, HD 209458b is a hot Jupiter with one major convenience: You never have to bother to set your watch. The planet is in a tidally locked orbit with its parent star, meaning one side is always facing the sun and the other side is stuck in perpetual night. Because of this disparity, the planet also has strong winds similar to those of HD189733b. However, wind speeds on this planet only reach 4,500 miles per hour, making it a better option for a thrill-seeking windsurfer who might still be holding out hope of keeping a hair or two in place.
Credit: Jon Lomberg/Univ. of Toronto
Forget Jupiter The swirling storm at the center of Jupiter's Great Red Spot might get all the attention in our solar system. But that storm is a tiny tyke compared to the one on this brown drawf. Affectionately called "2MASS J21392676+0220226," this brown dwarf is located approximately 47 light-years away.
Solar Storms Unlike the weather mentioned in every other entry on this slide show, storms on the sun can have a significant impact on life on Earth. As storm activity increases in frequency as the sun approaches its solar maximum in its 11-year cycle, solar flares and coronal mass ejections can threaten the functionality of satellite systems, affecting computer, navigation and telecommunications networks on Earth, as well as potentially disrupt power grids. Unfortunately, an umbrella won't do us much good in the event of a massive solar storm as the sun blasts plasma particles at Earth at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour. But that doesn't mean there's reason to panic, either. (Not yet, anyway.)
Credit: ESA/V. Beckmann (NASA-GSFC)
Honorable Mention: Black Holes If you're chasing massive storms in space, nothing quite rivals the strength and intensity of the tidal forces created by a hungry black hole. When black holes tear into stars, they pull in gasses from that star at such high speeds as to create bright gamma-ray bursts that are detectable from Earth. Anything that comes near a black hole is stretched out, then ripped apart and smashed together again with other matter at velocities approaching the speed of light. If there's one storm you absolutely don't want to get caught in this year, it's one created by drifting too close to a black hole.
More stories by Talal Al-Khatib.
— The diamond planet is part of a binary star system located 4,000 light-years from Earth.
— The body is the leftovers of a once-massive star, now reduced to solid crystal-like carbon — diamond.
— Scientists would like to find a pulsar with a black hole companion.
Astronomers have found the remains of a once-massive star, now transformed into a solid diamond five times bigger than Earth.
The object circles a pulsing companion star about 4,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Serpens (The Snake), which lies about one-eighth of the way toward the center of the Milky Way galaxy.
Astronomers noticed that the steady pulses of energy coming from the star, known as J1719-1438, were regularly and minutely disturbed, a phenomenon caused by the gravitational tug of another, smaller circling object.
By measuring the pattern, scientists were able to figure out how far away the second object circles and its mass, leading to the realization that they had found a bizarre binary system, with one partner reduced to a diamond core.
"In this case, something with the mass of our sun has evolved to be something the mass of a planet — quite extraordinary," astronomer Michael Keith, with the Australia Telescope National Facility, wrote in an email to Discovery News.
The companion to J1719-1438 never got big enough to produce elements much heavier than carbon, so after its lighter-weight hydrogen and helium were stripped away that would leave a solid core of carbon — diamond.
"Due to the immense pressure, the carbon will be in a dense crystal-like structure, although much more closely packed than in a diamond on Earth," Keith said.
The system is now stable, with no evidence that it will change for billions of years.
"Of course, this also means that it could well have been around for a long time, just waiting for us to find it. Since it's likely to last for longer than the Earth or the sun, I would say that in this case, a diamond really is forever," Keith said.
The diamond planet was found as part of an ongoing search for pulsating stars, known as pulsars, which scientists like to use as probes.
"We'd like to find a pulsar with a black hole companion," Michael Kramer, director of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, told Discovery News. "It's the exotic case that tell us most about the laws of physics and what's going on in the universe."
The research is published in this week's Science.