Bolt surprised the running world when he broke the 100m record in the spring of 2008, partly because the top times had been stagnant for years.
And You Thought Football Was Rough...
Last week, the 2011 NFL regular season officially kicked off. While the athletes, the atmosphere and the sense of team pride draw fans to the sport, the physicality of the game is undoubtedly one of football's big draws. Although football is the hard-hitting sport popular in America today, it is by no means the most physical game ever played. From long-dead spectator sports like gladiator combat to the ancient incarnations of the sports now known as lacrosse and polo, explore some of the most violent sports in history in this slideshow.
In what might be the most well known spectator sport of the Roman era, gladiator combat pitted armed men, typically slaves and criminals, against each other as well as wild beasts, including lions, bears, and more. Although injuries and fatalities are common with this kind of blood sport, gladiators could earn substantial sums through victory. Games featuring gladiators were hosted not only for ritual purposes, such as religious celebrations or funerals, but also as a means for the rich to show off their power. Around the 4th century, the increased need to protect the empire from outside invaders as well as the rising influence of Christianity led to a decline and the eventual disappearance of the sport entirely.
Similar to gladiator combat, venatio were a sport that pitted armed men against wild and often exotic animals. The matches were hardly even. In a single day, thousands of animals could be slaughtered by only a handful of hunters. In fact, although lions, tigers, bears, and elephants were included in the event, non-aggressive creatures, such as rabbits and deer, were also included in the games. On the other side of the coin, animals were often also used to inflict punishment. A common execution of criminals and most famously Christians often involved mauling by a large beast like a lion or bear.
Today, polo is known as a gentleman's activity. The team sport is so synonymous with high society that a polo player on horseback has even become the symbol of a popular fashion brand. But when polo was first played by Persians starting in the 5th century, it was anything but a civilized game. Originally, toughened cavalries played the sport to hone their horseback battle skills. Eventually, Iranian nobility picked up on the activity and the game has been identified with upper-class leisure ever since.
These days, racquetball is a fairly genteel sport. Like polo, it's also associated with a refined, rather than purely physical athlete. But early forms of the sport were much more violent. Consider the sport played by indigenous tribes, including the Maya and the Inca, throughout ancient Central and South America. Although the exact rules of the game are a mystery, courts and rubber balls left behind by these tribes reveal what the sport entailed. Like the ancient sport of polo, this ball game simulated battle, but ancient Mesoamerican tribes took it one step further: With games involving religious rituals, losers wouldn't simply shake hands and go home; they would be sacrificed to the gods. Some historians have even suggested that dismembered heads were used as balls in some ritualistic games.
Before lacrosse was a popular sport among prep schools in the mid-Atlantic and northeast United States, Native Americans throughout North America played an ancient version of the game that traces back as far as 2,500 years ago. Back then, lacrosse wasn't played for fun, but rather was part of a religious ritual simulating war. The goal wasn't to have fun, but rather honor their gods and toughen up the young warriors. Games could go on for days and might include hundreds of players on each side. Their version of the game didn't include pads and helmets. In fact, the earliest players didn't have any protection at all. Rather than carrying metal or graphite sticks with nets, their ornately decorated sticks were made out of wood and possibly deer skin.
Any film buff has seen the famous chariot race in 1959 classic epic film Ben-Hur. Although the sport still remains alive today, the height of its popularity occurred between the ancient Greek and later the Roman era in which the film is set. For both the drivers and the horses, chariot racing could be particularly hazardous, frequently causing injury and death. However, it was also one of the more popular spectator sports of its time. Victory often meant large winnings for those skilled and lucky enough to win races. In fact, according to an estimate published in the historical magazine Lapham's Quarterly, the highest paid athlete in history was an ancient Roman charioteer.
For what might be the oldest combat sport ever played, dating back as early as the 13th century B.C., wrestling may seem like a fairly tame entry compared to the other sports in this list. However, consider this: For much of its history, wrestling was an event in which participants were entirely nude. Those locks, falls, and pins hurt a lot more without any clothes. On a more serious note, early forms of wrestling did not always include what is traditionally understood as "Greco-Roman wrestling." One variant, a martial art known as Pankration, involves a combination of boxing and wrestling techniques. This form of combat did not have any of the same rules as traditional wrestling and could result in serious injury for participants.
Like many early sports appearing on this list, jousting is an activity derived from warfare. The medieval incarnation of this game involves two heavily armored knights riding at each other at full speed while aiming a wooden lance at an opponent in order to knock him off his horse. Although jousting was a sport steeped in rules and pageantry, it was nonetheless dangerous for even the most well protected participants. Injuries and even deaths were common.
Fisherman's jousting is a sport that originated in ancient Egypt and is still played to this day. Here's how it works: Two fishermen on small boats approach each other head on and try to knock each other from their vessels. Although preventing injury in this sport is easily achieved these days, during the time of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, most participants of this sport didn't actually know how to swim. This made drowning a common danger for any losers.
- A little tailwind, altitude and a faster start time could lower Usain Bolt's 100-meter world record from 9.58 to 9.45.
- No one can predict what the ultimate limit of human speed will be.
- Sprinting world records tend to stagnate for a decade before dropping again.
With his current world record of 9.58 seconds in the 100-meter dash and a top speed of more than 27 miles per hour, Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt has already defied many expectations of how fast human legs can go.
Yet, without much effort, Bolt could run even faster, according to new calculations. With a few slight but still-legal boosts from tailwinds, altitude and a better reaction time at the start, argues Cambridge University mathematician John Barrow, Bolt could easily clock in at 9.45.
And while elite athletes will likely run even faster than that some day, no one can say for sure how fast people will eventually go -- or if we'll ever see a sprinter finally reach the limits of the human body.
"There will be an ultimate limit, but just because there's a limit mathematically, that doesn't mean you'll ever reach it," said Barrow, author of Mathletics: A Scientist Explains 100 Amazing Things About the World of Sports. "You can draw a curve that's always increasing, but never goes higher than the particular level where it's bounded."
Bolt surprised the running world when he broke the 100m record in the spring of 2008, partly because the top times had been stagnant for years. At 6 feet, 5 inches tall, Bolt also seemed too big to be a sprinter. By 2009, he had lowered the record from 9.74 to 9.58 -- a dramatic drop for such a short distance.
As speculation circulated about how fast Bolt might eventually go, Barrow started doing some basic calculations, focusing on three simple factors that are known to affect sprinting speed. He started with Bolt's notoriously slow reaction time to the starting gun.
Under official rules, runners are called on false starts if they leave the starting blocks less than 0.1 seconds after the signal sounds. The best starters are consistently off and running after about 0.12 seconds. If Bolt could get his sluggish start time of 0.165 -- the second slowest in the final heat at the Beijing Olympics -- down to 0.12 and still run at his top speed, Barrow said, that alone would lower his record to 9.55.
Bolt surprised the running world when he broke the 100m record in the spring of 2008, partly because the top times had been stagnant for years.Getty Images
With a maximum allowable tailwind of two meters (6.6 feet) per second on top of an improved start time, Barrow calculated with known relationships between wind, drag and running speed, the sprinter could lower his record to 9.5.
Finally, Barrow considered what would happen if Bolt ran at an altitude of 1,000 m (3,280 feet), the highest allowable elevation for running records to count. At that height, the density of air is low enough to reduce drag and facilitate another drop in speed. If he also started well and had a tailwind, altitude would give Bolt the ability to run a 9.47.
As for actual running technique, studies have shown that the most important factor driving sprinting performance is how hard runners can hit the ground in relation to their body weight, said Peter Weyand, a physiologist and biomechanist at Southern Methodist University in Dallas.
The amount of time people spend in the air between foot strikes doesn't matter much, Weyend said. Neither does the speed with which they cycle their legs around. Instead, elite sprinters produce vertical forces that are as much as five times greater than their body weight. That propels them upwards like a spring, while momentum carries them foreword.
Scientists still don't know how the fastest runners generate ground forces as high as 1,000 pounds. And even though studies have connected certain body shapes and running styles with speed, it's always possible that everything will be different once people start running faster than they ever have before.
"We can figure out what the relationships are that allow people to run fast, what the important factors are and where the limits are from the standpoint of experience," Weyand said. "Once you move outside the range of data, you have no way of knowing if those relationships are going to break down. Any relationship you have within a given range doesn't necessarily hold at the extremes."
Compared to distance running, very little is known about the detailed physiology of elite sprinting, added Michael Joyner, an exercise researcher at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. What's almost certain, though, is that someone will eventually run faster than Usain Bolt.
In fact, at least two runners may have already unofficially beat Bolt's pace. In the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, for one, American sprinter Bob Hayes was clocked with a handheld stopwatch at 8.5 seconds in the final leg of the 4 x 100 relay. And last season, Bolt's teammate Yohan Blake ran the second fastest ever 200m with a time of 19.26 and a dismally slow reaction time at the start of 0.269. Taking all that into account, Barrow figured, Blake's 100m split would've been 9.495 -- faster than Bolt's current record.
Generally, times for the 100m tend to stagnate for five, 10 or 15 years before someone chips off another tenth or two-tenths of a second, Joyner said. He suspects that, a decade from now, the next top sprinter will lower the record to 9.4 or so. Beyond that, the future of sprinting is anyone's guess.
"Every time we say there's a limit, someone goes faster," Joyner said. "Who knows what that is?"