Sponges Likely Paved the Way For All Life on Earth
Oct. 23, 2012 --
For 37 years the Nikon Small World photography competition showcases the beauty and extreme details captured using light microscopes. Every year the world below the waves provides many interesting subjects for the Small World competition. Most examples of aquatic life are entered by professionals in, or students of marine biology, but many of these images were provided by entrants from other disciplines who simply find marine life fascinating. Here, photomicrographer Arlene Wechezak of Anacortes, Wash., and 10th place winner of the 2009 Small World Contest, magnified 10x an Obelia species of hydrozoa with extruded medusae as a fresh sea water mount using a darkfield.
Here we see the same species as before only this time magnified 40x its original size. The extruded medusae of the Obelia hydrozoa contain tentacles that sting and capture the animal's prey.
Bruno Pernet and Russell Zimmer, California S
In this image, biologists magnified 20x a species of bryozoan of the genus Membranipora found on seaweed and kelp using stereomicroscopy.
James H. Nicholson, Hanian Lang, and Sylvia G
Almost transparent tissue covers the hard skeleton "cups" of each polyp in this brightfield photo of brain coral in the genus Goniastrea magnified 25x.
Marine biologist Alvaro Migotto of the University of São Paulo in Brazil used stereomicroscopy and a darkfield to capture this photo of a brittle star magnified 8x.
Photographer David Maitland of Feltwell, UK, zoomed in with 100x magnification on coral sand over a brightfield.
Tomasz Kozielec, Nicolaus Copernicus Universi
Surface of shark skin tanned with a chromium compound magnified 40x with reflected light.
ANALYSIS: US Shark Fin Soup Appalling and Widespread
John Dolan, CNRS/University of Paris Laborato
On its side this marine ciliate (Rhabdonella spiralis)looks like a trumpet; when the image is turned vertical it looks like a champagne flute - a fine photo from French oceanographer John Dolan, who used a differential interference contrast technique and 40x magnification.
Robert Brons Insula College Dordrecht in Spij
A freshwater Bryozoan, or moss animal, Cristatella mucedo in a darkfield magnified 6.5x.
BIG PIC: Rock Vomit: A Sea Squirt Infestation
Biologist Diana Lipscomb of George Washington University in Washington, used Nomarski Interference Contrast and a magnification of 400x the original size to showcase a suctorian ciliate, Acineta tuberosa, in the phylum Ciliophora.
Using Nomarski Interference Contrast and a magnification of 400x the original size this photo shows a ciliate in the genus Sonderia that preys upon various algae, diatoms, and cyanobacteria.
PHOTOS: Evolution Before Your Eyes
The seemingly lowly sponge, just by its very existence, might have paved the way for the evolution of complex life forms, including our own species, according to a new paper.
Sponges appear to have added oxygen to the deep ocean, creating an environment where more mobile, major oxygen-using animals could have evolved, holds the paper, published in the latest Nature Geoscience.
The research builds on work, presented earlier this year, which found that the most primitive sponges probably could survive in water containing very low levels of oxygen.
“There had been enough oxygen in ocean surface waters for over 1.5 billion years before the first animals evolved, but the dark depths of the ocean remained devoid of oxygen,” lead author Tim Lenton of the University of Exeter was quoted as saying in a press release. “We argue that the evolution of the first animals could have played a key role in the widespread oxygenation of the deep oceans. This in turn may have facilitated the evolution of more complex, mobile animals.”
Several lines of evidence support the theory. DNA analysis finds that the earliest sponges likely first emerged at least 700 million years ago, when the oceans contained little oxygen. Between 700 and 600 million years ago, the oceans gradually became more oxygenated, meaning more enriched with oxygen. Fossils of animals dating to 650 million years ago have been found.
Then there is the way that sponges feed. These multicellular organisms consist of pores and channels that allow nutrient-containing water to circulate through them.
As sponges feed, they filter out tiny particles of organic matter from the water. The particles millions of years ago would have included dead microbial matter, which rots and consumes oxygen as it does so. Sponges therefore helped to clean water of this material. Without all of the rotting going on, the water would have experienced increased oxygen levels, the researchers suggest.
More oxygen in the water then set the stage for even more complex life forms to emerge, such as the first predatory animals with guts that started to eat one another, marking the beginning of a modern marine ecosystem, with the type of food webs we are familiar with today.
It is widely accepted that the first terrestrial animals evolved from marine species. Mammals, including humans, are a class of animals that evolved from terrestrial species.
The jump from sponges to humans is, of course, a long one, but many researchers believe that sponges are the most likely candidate for an “Animal Eve,” referring to a single group of organisms that, through many stages of evolution, gave rise to all animals alive today.
The latest research also helps to answer a chicken-and-egg-type question: Which came first, a lot of sponges, or an oxygenated ocean deep? The answer, at least according to Lenton and his team, is the former.
“The effects we predict suggest that the first animals, far from being a passive response to rising atmospheric oxygen, were the active agents that oxygenated the ocean around 600 million years ago,” he said. “They created a world in which more complex animals could evolve, including our very distant ancestors.”